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Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

The Brompton Site

 (80 seals found to date with 0 seals awaiting upload as of 25th September 2018)

 

 

Discovered by James Prescott and Tom Eckersley in 2015.

Russian Lead Flax Bale Seals from the Brompton Site

The major mills here were Yeoman-Pattison and Wilford's Mill

 

Baltic States Cross Shields

 

 

 

see the video

--------------------------------

The Baltic States Crosses

on Shield Flax Seals c.1800

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

Some seals have an unusual

Crescent notation under the date.

It is really the base of an anchor

wherein the Christians anchored

 their faith in Jesus Christ.

 

See the Meaning of Symbols Page

--------------------------------

 

Inspectors and Posts
from Brompton Mills

 

  Arekhov.D        1793   32

  Asanin.L         1810    5

  Babanov.A        1793   70

  Boryshnikov.G    1809   77

  Cherentsov.T     1817  121
  Chernyshev.S     1792   81

  Demyanov.E       181?   70

  Eremeev.IM       1829   41

  Filatov.I        181?   89

  Kan??ov          1809   54

  Kanavalov        1788   26

  Katov.Ya         1816   93

  Kirilov          1785  308

  Khokhlov.Ya      1788   30

  Konovalov.K      1809   26

  Kostin.A         1815   32

  Kostin.K         1792   1?

  Koslov.E         1805   30

  Kuchkov.Ya       1794   62

  Kudryaev.I       1816    1

  Kuin.A           1792   94

  Levshev.M        1805   37
  Merenishchevskoi.F  1833   16

  Moshnikov.K      1783  327

  Nebedomov        1783   74

  Orlov.M.I        1817   59

  P'yarkov         1786  220

  Pavlovs.Z        1817   67

  Pirozhnikov.VA   1792    2

  Plotnikov.I.M    1817  102

  Rastrepaev.I     1793   73

  Sanin.AN         1800    5

  Shipachev.I      1801    6

  Shirapov.I       1787   68

  Shyrovskoi.I     1813   85

  Sikavin.I        1814  101

  Sinyakov.S       1791   66

  Soloukhi.D       1790   45

  Tamilin          1785  330

  Timofee.S        1793   34

  Tomilin.T        1793   29

  Van??ov          1809   54

  Verevkin.A       1791    3

  Vinakurov.I      1830   61

  Vorob'ev.A       1814   98
  Vurev-i.GR       1814    3

  Zaitsov.K        1807   47

  Zakharov.N       1789   74

  Zamarin.T        1816   17
  Zemskoi.M        178?   --

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Posts / Inspectors / #
from Brompton Mills

 

  1  I.Kudryaev    1816#003

  2 VA.Pirozhnikov 1792#002

  3  A.Verevkin    1791#002
  3 GR.Vurev-i     178?#002

  5 AN.Sanin       1800#001

  5  L.Asanin      1810#002

  6  I.Shipachev   1801#001

 1?  K.Kostin      1792#001

 16  F.Merenishchevskoi 1833#001

 17  T.Zamarin     1816#001

 26    Kanavalov   1788#003

 26  K.Konovalov   1809#001

 29  T.Tomilin     1793#006

 30  E.Kozlov      1805#003

 30 Ya.Khokhlov    1788#001

 32  D.Arekhov     1793#008

 32  A.Kostin      1815#001

 34  S.Timofee     1793#002

 37  M.Levshev     1805#001

 41 IM.Eremeev     1829#S01

 45  D.Soloukhi    1790#001

 47  K.Zaitsov     1807#001

 54  K.Van??ov     1809#002

 59 MI.Orlov       1817#001

 61  I.Vinakurov   1830#S01

 62 Ya.Kuchkov     1794#002

 66  S.Sinyakov    1791#001

 67  Z.Pavlovs     1817#003

 68  I.Shirapov    1787#001

 70  E.Demyanov    181?#002

 70  A.Babanov     1893#007

 73  I.Rastrepaev  1793#003

 74    Nebedomov   1783#002

 74  N.Zakharov    1789#001

 77  G.Boryshnikov 1809#003

 78  M.Korolev     1810#001

 81  S.Chernyshev  1792#004

 85  I.Shyrovskoi  1813#001

 89  I.Filatov     181?#001

 93 Ya.Katov       1816#002

 94  A.Kuin        1792#003

 98  A.Vorob'ev    1814#001

 101 I.Sikavin     1814#002

 102 IM.Plotnikov  1817#002

 121 T.Cherentsov  1817#004

 220   P'yarkov    1786#001

 308   Kirilov     1785#002

 327  K.Moshnikov  1783#001

 330   Tamilin     1785#001
 ---  M.Zemskoi     178?#001

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

How the seals got

into the fields

 

The discarded stalks of the flax with

a bale seal still attached were highly

prized as fertilizer by local farmers

and they were spread on to the land

mixed in human & animal excrement.

 

 

A small part of a 200 acre field

--------------------

 

An 1814 Newcastle Copper Farthing

found on the site and below is what

it looked like when it was first minted.

 

------------------

 

 

Bricks taken from the last mill to be

demolished were used to make this

memorial to generations of workers

on the village green in Brompton. 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

An interesting Danish Seal found on

the site by Supervisor James Prescott

The Hexongal six-pointed star is of

 Jewish owner Joseph Hambro who

had a warehouse in Copenhagen.

The Obverse gives the address as

MOLLERNE PAA BODENHOFFS PLADS

Mollerne on Bodenhoffs Square.

Joseph Hambro, was born in

Copenhagen on Nov 2nd 1780 and

died in London on Oct 3rd 1848.

A very rich and powerful man

who was Aulic Councilor to the

King of Denmark.

- - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

click on the thumbnail

A lead bag seal of Webb & Sons, manure

manufacturers (and seed merchants*).

One side of the seal has the inscription,

 WEBB & SONS SALTNEY CHESTER

 MANURE MANFRS (across in two lines).

 The other side has the inscription,

 REGISTERED TRADE MARK,

 around a crowned emblem,

which has WEBBS across the top.

* Edward Webb and Sons, seed merchants

 of Stourbridge, took over the Saltney

bone manure works of Proctor and

Ryland c.1894. Webbs expanded the

 plant to such an extent that by 1910 it

was Saltney's second largest business.

(see BagSeals.Org)

----------------------

click on the thumbnail

Another manure bag seal from the site.

One side ‘DREYFUS FR]ERE] ET CIE’

around  GUANO / DU / PEROU.

The reverse GOUVERNEMENT DU PEROU

 around DEPOSE above a CORNUCOPIA.

  A company registered (Depose in French) by

the Drefyus Brothers. "Auguste Dreyfus

 (28 June 1827 – 25 May 1897) was a French

 businessman who made his fortune by

 financing the Peruvian trade in Guano.

 Dreyfus joined a small textile trading firm set

up by three of his elder brothers and moved to

Lima, Peru to act as their local representative.

 He became involved in the guano trade, and in

 1869 signed a major contract with the Peruvian

government that gave him a monopoly over

exports of Peruvian Guano to Europe.

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

BR
+++
001

Cross quartered
+ shield with
9/9/-/- pellets

WLT
12K

Baltic States

(Krown flax)
IDS 576

BR
+++
002

Cross quartered
+ shield with
4/4/-/- pellets

12K
ICM

Baltic States

(Krown flax)
IDS 669

BR
+++
003

Cross quartered
+ shield with
4/4/-/- pellets

12K
ICM

Baltic States

(Krown flax)
IDS 702

BR
+++
004

Cross quartered
+ shield with
4/4/-/- annulets

ICM
12K

Baltic States

(Krown flax)
IDS 705

BR
+++
005

Cross quartered
+ shield with
5/5/-/- pellets

12K
WLT

Baltic States

(Krown flax)

BR
+++
006

Cross quartered
+ shield with
5/5/-/- pellets

CR

12

Baltic States
(Krown flax)

 

Riga Crossed Keys Seals

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

BR
keys
001

+
crossed keys
2

blank

Riga
city

 

BR
keys
002

X
crossed keys
no grade number

blank

Riga
city

the left hand side of the keys is missing

BR
keys
003

X
crossed keys
1

blank

Riga
city

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Circular Dated Customs Seals

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

CD
1815
001

???????

1815

circular dated

shield with crescent

blank

Crescent

anchor base

CD
1815
002

РИЖОИ.ТА.ОТ.ТО

1815

read clockwise

shield with sphere

blank

  РИЖОИ.ТА.ОТ.ТО  /  РИЖОИ = Riga  /  TAMOЖHЯ. = Customs

  /  OTPACЛЬ. = Department  /  TOBAP = Goods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead Flax Bale Seals

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

BR
????
001

unreadable

unreadable

??

           
           

BR
178?
001

 ЛД = LD
M.ЗEMCKOИ
(M.ZEMSKOI)
H??

NP
TH12H
178?

??
post
(flax)

BR
178?
002

ЛД = LD

Г.P.BУPEB-I

(GR.VUREV-I)

H3

  NP
ПC12K
1787

3
post
(flax)

 

BR
1783
001

 ДN = DN
К.МОШНИКОВЬ
(K.MOSHNIKOV)
H327

NP
?P12H
1783

327
post

(flax)

BR
1783
002

ДФ=DF
HEБEДOMOB
(NEBEDOMOV)

N74

NP
JM12H
1783

74
post

(flax)

 

BR
1785
001

 Д.Г = DG
TAMИЛИHЬ
(TAMILIN)
H330

NP
LIW12H
1785
Crescent

330
post

(flax)

BR
1785
002

 ДH = DN
KИPИЛOBЬ
(KIRILOV)
H308

NP
BCI12K
1785

308
post

(flax)

 

BR
1786
001

 ДЛ = DL
ПЬЯРКОВЪ
(P'YARKOV)
H220

NP
I?12H
1786

Crescent

220
post

(flax)

 

BR
1787
001

 ЛД = LD
И:ШИРАПО
(I.SHIRAPOV)
H68

NP
AK12H
1787

68
post

(flax)

 

BR
1788
001

ЛД = LD
Я:XOXЛOBЬ
(Ya.KHOKHLOV)
H30

NP
IM12H
1788

30
post
(flax)

BR
1788
002

ЛД = LD
Я:XOXЛOBЬ
(Ya.KHOKHLOV)
H30

NP
1M12H
1788

30
post
(flax)

BR
1788
003

ЛД = LD
KAHABAЛOBЬ
(KANAVALOV)
H26

NP
LGK12K
1809

26
post
(flax)

 

BR
1789
001

ЛД = LD

H.ЗAХAPOBЬ

(N.ZAKHAROV)

H74

NP
?M12K
1789

74
post
(flax)

 

BR
1790
001

ЛД = LD

Д.СОЛОУХИ

(D.SOLOUKHI)

H45

NP
MM12H
1790

45
post

(flax)

 

BR
1791
001

ЛД = LD
C.CIHЯKOBЬ
(S.SINYAKOV)
H66

NP
PR12K
1791

66
post

(flax)

BR
1791
002

ЛД = LD
A.BEPEBKIH
(A.VEREVKIN)
H3

NP
?M12K
179?

3
post

(flax)

BR
1791
003

ЛД = LD
C.CIHЯKOBЬ
(S.SINYAKOV)
H66

NP
PR12K
1791

66
post

(flax)

 

BR
1792
001

ЛД = LD
K:KOCTИHЬ
(K.KOSTIN)
H1?

NP
??12H
1792

1?
post

(flax)

BR
1792
002

ЛД = LD
BA:ПИPOЖHИ
(VA.PIROZHNIKOV)
H2

NP
??12H
1792

2
post

(flax)

 BR
1792
003

ЛД = LD
A.KУИHЬ
(A.KUIN)
H94

NP
ЛX12K
1792

94
post
(flax)

 

BR
1793
001

ЛД = LD
C.TИMOФEEЬ
S.TIMOFEE
H34

NP
DH12H
1793

34
post

(flax)

BR
1793
002

ЛД = LD
C.TИMOФEEЬ
S.TIMOFEE
H34

NP
ИФ12H
1793

34
post
(flax)

BR
1793
003

ЛД = LD
И.РАСТРЕПАЕВ
I.RASTREPAEV
H73

NP
PB12K
1793

73
post
(flax)

BR
1793
004

ЛД = LD
К.ЗАИЦОВЬ
(K.ZAITSOV)
H47

NP
ГФ12H
1793

34
post

(flax)

BR
1793
005

ЛД = LD
С.ТИМОФЕЕЬ
S.TIMOFEE
H34

NP
IH12H
1793

34
post
(flax)

BR
1793
006

ЛД = LD
T.TOMИЛИHЬ

(T.TOMILIN)
H29

NP
ГФ12K
1793

73
post
(flax)

BR
1793
007

ЛД = LD
A.БAБANOBЬ

(A.BABANOV)

H70

NP
IH12H
1793

70
post
(flax)

BR
1793
008

ЛД = LD
Д.АРЕХОВЬ

(D.AREKHOV)

H32

NP
AP12H
1793

32
post
(flax)

BR
1793
009

ЛД = LD
K:KOCTИHЬ
(K.KOSTIN)
H1?

NP
EC12K
1793

1?
post

(flax)

 

 

BR
1794
001

 ЛД = LD
И:ШИРАПО
(I.SHIRAPOV)
H68

NP
AK12H
1794

68
post

(flax)

BR
1794
002

 ЛД = LD
Я.КУЧКОВЬ
(Ya.KUCHOV)
H62

NP
HP12K
1794

62
post

(flax)

 

BR
1797
001

ЛД = LD
K.KOHOBAЛOBЬ
(K.KONOVALOV)
H26

NP
AГ12K
179
7

26
post
(flax)

BR
1797
002

ЛД = LD
T.TOMИЛИHЬ

(T.TOMILIN)
H29

NP
HP12K
1797

29
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1800
001

ЛД = LD
AN.CAHИHЬ
(AN.SANIN)
H5

NP
ЛX12K
1800

5
post
(flax)

 

BR
1801
001

ЛД = LD
И.ШИПАЧЕВЬ
(I.SHIPACHEV)
H6

NP
ИЧ12H
1801

6
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR

1805

001

ЛД = LD

М.ЛЕВШЕВЬ

(M.LEVSHEV)
H37

NP

AP12H

1805

37

post
(flax)

BR

1805

002

ЛД = LD

T.TOMИЛИHЬ

(T.TOMILIN)
H29

NP

CGF12H

1805

29

post
(flax)

BR

1805

003

  ЛД = LD

E.KOЗЛOBЬ

(E.KOZLOV)

H30

NP

BP12H
1805

30

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1807
001

ЛД = LD
K.ЗAИЦOBЬ
(K.ZAITSOV)
H47

NP
BK12H
1807

47
post
(flax)

BR
1807
002

ЛД = LD
K.ЗAИЦOBЬ
(K.ZAITSOV)
H47

NP
BK12H
1807

47
post
(flax)

 

BR
1809
001

ЛД = LD
K.KOHOBAЛOBЬ
(K.KONOVALOV)
H26

NP
AШ12K
1809

26
post
(flax)

BR
1809
002

ЛД = LD
K.
BAH??OBЬ
(K.VAN??OV)
H54

NP
ICБ12?
1809

54
post
(flax)

BR
1809
003

ЛД = LD
Г.БОРЫШНИКОВ
(G.BORYSHNIKOV)
H77

NP
CGF
12H
1809

77

post
(flax)

 

BR
181?
001

ЛД = LD
И.ФИЛATOBЬ
(I.FILATOV)
H89

NP
?H12H
181?

89
post
(flax)

BR
181?
002

ЛД = LD
E.ДEMЯHOBЬ
(E.DEMYANOV)
H70

NP
MM12H
1815

70
post
(flax)

 

 

BR
1810
001

ЛД = LD
М.КОРОЛЕВЬ
(M.KOROLEV)
H78

NP
ИЧ12H
1810

78

post
(flax)

BR
1810
002

ЛД = LD
Л.АСАНИНЪ
(L.ASANIN)
H5

NP
CH12H
1810

78

post
(flax)

 

BR
1812
001

ЛД = LD
Т.ТОМИЛИНЪ
(T.TOMILIN)
H29

NP
PIH12H
181
2

29

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1813
001

ЛД = LD
И.ШЫPOBCHO.
(I.SHYROVSKOI)
H85

NP
IMБ12H
1813

85
post
(flax)

BR
1813
002

unreadable

NP
??12H
1813

??
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1814
001

ЛД = LD
A.BOPOБЬEBЬ
(A.VOROB'EV)
H98

NP
HP12K
1814

98
post
(flax)

BR
1814
002

ЛД = LD

И.CИHABИH

(I.SIKAVIN)

H101

NP
BK12H
1814

101
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1815
001

ЛД = LD
A:KOCTИHЬ
(A.KOSTIN)
H32

NP
MM12H
1815

32
post

(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1816
001

ЛД = LD
T.ЗAMAPИHЬ
(T.ZAMARIN)
H17

NP
AV12H
1816

17
post

(flax)

BR
1816
002

ЛД = LD
Я.KATOBЬ
(Ya.KATOV)
H93

NP
AЧ12H
1816

93
post

(flax)

BR
1816
003

ЛД = LD
И.KУДPЯEBЬ
(I.KUDRYAEV)
H1

NP
AГ12H
1816

1
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1817
001

ЛД = LD
MИ:OPЛOBЬ
(MI.ORLOV)
H
59

NP
AГ12H
1817

59
post
(flax)

BR
1817
002

ЛД = LD
I.M.ПЛOTHИKOB
(I.M.PLOTNIKOV
H1O2

NP
AГ12H
1817

102
post
(flax)

BR
1817
003

ЛД = LD
З:ПABЛOBC
(Z.PAVLOVS)
H67

NP
AK12H
1817

67
post
(flax)

BR
1817
004

ЛД = LD
Т.ЧЕРЕНЦОВЬ
(T.CHERENTSOV)
H121

NP
IH12K
1817

121
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1829
S01

ЛД = LD

ИM:EPEMEEBЬ

(IM:EREMEEV)

H41

SPB

NP._2.

F.W

1829

41

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1830
S01

ЛД = LD

И.BИHAKУPOB

(I.VINAKUROV)

H61

SPB
NP_3
????
1830

61
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

BR
1833
C01

ЛД = LD
Ф.MEPEHИЩEBCKOI
(F.MERENISHCHEVSKOI)
H16

CПБ

HoП.2

H.Ш

1833

16

post
(flax)

           
           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous Lead Seals

Russian State Customs Seals 

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

BR
Cust
001

blank
Russian State
Riga
Customs Seal

PIЖOПOPTA

Riga Port
17
81
Ю    T

        

Seal Crimping Tools on Custom Seals .. some say stylised ship hulls

     

 

Misc Lead Seals

#

 OBVERSE  click thumbnail

  REVERSE click thumbnail

BR
misc
001

AMMONIA

FIXED

GUANO 

JAMES GIBBS

& COMPY

LONDON

BR
misc
002

Eagle
with sword

K.PR.STEUER-KONTR

K.PR= Kingdom of

Prussia Tax Control

19th century.

BR
misc
003

Alnage seal
2.2 gr
13x13x2.5mm

Crown 1688

James II

Alnage seal

 

 

 

BROMPTON HERITAGE GROUP     http://www.bromptonmatters.co.uk/archive/

AN INTRODUCTION TO BROMPTON’S LINEN INDUSTRY

    This article is a consolidation of Jennifer Allison's talk to the Brompton Heritage Group on Tues 4th Nov 2003.  Jennifer would like to emphasize that this is her personal interpretation based on a number of pieces of work by other people. We are grateful to Jennifer for making these notes available for all to read. The advertised subject was Brompton in the 19th Century, but Jennifer started much further back, and worked around the theme "Why Linen?" as Linen manufacturing was a major industry in Brompton and indirectly the reason that the Brompton Heritage Group came into existence. Even before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Brompton was special, with so much Anglian and Danish stone carving found in the church, particularly the Hogbacks. It was a biggish village in 1066, the Doomsday book shows that part of it was a manor of 14 carucates taxable worth 40 shillings before the conquest which is not small, compared to Scruton (also 40) and Bedale 20. After the Norman Conquest, the entire village became part of the demesne of the Bishop of Durham. Around 1100-1200, Brompton like many villages was re-arranged from hamlets to create one central village with open fields round it, and there is a lot of evidence of Brompton being large then, even if in 2 blocks. Water End and the East side of the Green still show the layout of "tofts and long crofts" - houses at the front with a long strip of land behind. Around the village would be open fields, cultivated jointly by the villagers. In the Poll Tax records of 1377, the number of tax payers indicates the size of towns and villages :- Northallerton 372 (typical small market town); Brompton 114 - that's big for round here, compare it to Great Smeaton 124 Borrowby 104; Danby Wiske 100 Osmotherley 55, Ainderby Steeple 51, Romanby 78, Dighton 62.

   Jumping forward to the 17th century we can see that it grew particularly fast in the 17th century. What evidence is there for this? First, look at the Baptism & Burial Records in the Parish Registers held at the North Yorks Record Office. Just looking at the typed transcripts, you can count the numbers of baptisms and burials, and see that in most years there are significantly more baptisms than burials. (Exceptions were 1623-4, 1651,1681, with many burials presumably due to a disease such as plague). Secondly, The Quarter Sessions for 1621 say ' 8 men to be discharged from their ordinary day and night watch in Brompton by reason of their dwelling in new erected houses distant from the said town'. Thirdly, the Hearth Tax of 1673 shows 81 households, meaning approx. 320-400 people, (Northallerton about 1,000). Brompton was now clearly bigger than Danby Wiske and Borrowby. The Hearth Tax also shows it was not a village of rich people. The tax was based on how many hearths a house had, so that is recorded. Clearly, more hearths = larger houses = richer people. Only one person in Brompton, Richard Walker, had 6 hearths, a few had 3 or 4, the rest had 1 or 2. However in Northallerton there were several people with 7 to 9 hearths, so evidently more wealthy. By the end of the 17th century, the open field system in the Northern Vale of York and Cleveland was superseded by enclosed fields (enclosure), and most of Brompton had been enclosed, except for Bullamoor. The drive behind enclosure was largely economic, as livestock could be more easily grazed in enclosed fields. Butter and cheese in particular were important, and numbers of cattle increased with enclosure. The North Riding seems to have captured the London butter market at this time.

    The other effect of enclosure was that people had more "spare" time, so they took up other activities alongside farming - up in the dales, spinning & weaving wool, knitting, lead mining, but in Brompton, linen. This was not new, some flax was grown and linen made in the Middle Ages, but there was certainly a huge growth from the late 17th century. Firstly more in the towns (the will of George Robinson of Northallerton in 1683 has an inventory including a house with 8 rooms and a separate workshop with 2 looms plus stock, total value £140.) But only 4 Brompton wills have been found for 1660-1710 with looms, and only one of those had 2 looms. There was a gradual move away from the towns, and there is certainly evidence for Brompton in the early 1700s. A researcher has found them in Quarter Sessions records and we have examples in the registers: 1728 Ann, daughter of Chris. Langdale, weaver, baptised. 1728/9 Mary, d of Thomas Jackson, weaver, buried. 1729 Ann, d of Ambrose Jackson, weaver, baptised. Same month, April, John Catrick, weaver, buried. After these few the occupation is not given in the mid 18th century but burials from 1779 show plenty of weavers and baptisms in the early 19th also show masses of weavers So, why linen? Jennifer suggested the plentiful supply of labour, and closeness to Northallerton's markets which expanded massively in the 17th and 18th centuries. How fast did it grow? Clear evidence is in the first census of 1801 [which didn't list names]. We find 206 households, more than doubled from 1673 making a population of approx 994. Of the 206, 55 are listed as being in 'manufacturing', more than in agriculture. Then in 1823 we have Baines Directory. This gives a population of 1223, which is up 229 in 22 years. Moreover, it says 'over 300 weavers are employed'. This is huge growth. Who is employing them? Baines Directory of 1823 shows 8 linen manufacturers in Brompton. This is more than elsewhere, most villages have one or two, Northallerton had 3. See the directory at http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/NRY/Northallerton/ Northallerton23.html Jennifer's ancestor, Nathaniel Russell of Northallerton was a linen manufacturer, but was apparently put out of business by Brompton people. Why was Brompton more successful? Possibly due to water power, able to provide cheap power for spinning, possibly in old corn mills. The 1856 ordnance survey map shows an un-named building by the river - was it a water mill? At the beginning of the 19th century, the employers were capitalists, organising the 'putting out' and probably the bleaching at Osmotherley. Most weavers probably rented their shops and looms. In 1809 George Wilson of Brompton was putting out to Hutton Rudby and Appleton Wiske as well as Brompton. John Pattison & John Wilford are also in the 1823 directory, and make earlier appearances in the Vestry Minutes of 1816. These surnames become very important later. Also in Baines is Samuel Atkinson, slay and geer maker (slay = a weavers reed. And a weaver's reed? A comb like implement for separating warp threads and bringing the weft into proper position) The late 18th & early 19th century was a time of great fluctuation in trade and consequent hard times when trade was poor, partly due to the effects of the Napoleonic wars. There were food riots in Northallerton during the wars, but a worse slump came afterwards in 1815. As things got better, workers were likely to strike, even though trade unions were illegal. In December 1818, the York Herald reported 'We understand that the weavers of Brompton, near Northallerton, a few days ago unanimously turned out for an advance of wages. They assemble twice a day and conduct themselves with regularity and decorum.' However by the following February, the paper reported 'Yesterday week, John Ayton, James Lee, Smith Long and Thomas Thompson of Brompton, journeymen linen manufacturers, were convicted at Northallerton before Richard Blanchard and Henry Hewgill Esqs. and the Rev. William Dent, three of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the North Riding, .under the acts for entering into an unlawful combination for obtaining an advance of wages which subjects the parties to confinement in the House of Correction with hard labour for the space of 2 months. They appealed and their conviction was overturned. In 1824, the Combination Acts were repealed, and in April 1825 the York Herald reported 'The linen weavers of Northallerton and Brompton, in consequence of the great rise in the price of provisions, turned out last week for an advance of wages. After a few days consultation the masters acceded to their demands.' Things got worse in the 1830's and 40's, and the country came close to revolution. There is much evidence of hard times locally. Brompton's poor house had its own weaving shop in 1822, and in 1831 Ann Irwin disliked it so much she broke out! She must have been young, elderly inmates were regularly supplied with rum and ale)! A Government inquiry showed appalling wages in all the linen villages and a report to the Brompton Primitive Methodist circuit says 'A great part of our members being weavers or otherwise connected with that business our finances have been affected by the depression in that trade' and in 1838 Peter Consett gave £50 to the poor of Brompton to buy blankets. Jennifer thinks many supported Chartism. In 1832, there was a major political change, the Great Reform Act, and what happened locally tells us something of the significance of Brompton's industry. Before 1832, Northallerton was a closed borough, with 2 MP's who were more or less appointed by Lord Harewood and Henry Peirse. After 1832, voting was opened up to householders with property worth £10 or more per annum (but not to everybody) so in Brompton 30-40 people got the vote, as well as significant numbers in Northallerton. This was a cause for celebrations, which were centred on Brompton (not Northallerton). According to a York paper "An entire fat ox was set to roast at midnight, attracting visitors from Northallerton and other places during the morning. A half moon battery and 6 pieces of cannon fired repeated volleys during the day. The Royal George and the Union Jack flew. Then a procession set out, also from Brompton, with a band, colours and banners flying and above all, a tableau on a wagon. There was a stage erected upon a waggon, on which a flax dresser, stripped, with tucked up sleeves and paper cap, was adroitly combing the flax before him; upon a form sat a weaver ,throwing quite at his ease the swiftly gliding shuttle, ever and anon receiving his supply of bobbins from a fair maiden, who calmly and deftly turned her wheel to keep him in continual action; while an aged dame, attired in a blue gown of ancient make, sat with the utmost composure against the jovial flax dresser, drawing out the lengthened thread.' (The writer does point out that spinning is now in water powered mills)...On the front of the wagon was an 'enormously large' broom to sweep out the rotten borough." The parade went to Northallerton and back but the dinner was on Brompton Green. There was a range of tables with a "triumphal arch of oaken boughs ornamented with flowers' for each...500 sat down to dine." BUT who was presiding? Mr. Wilford, with Mr. Pattison the Vice. Why them? There is evidence that much of the support for the Whig party and the Reform Act was from the Industrialists. There was no industry on this scale in Northallerton!! (The dinner was a huge success, with a copious supply of good ale, and afterwards about 300 females sat down to an excellent cup of tea, plum cake etc.) Captain Boss the candidate at the next election had a committee which included 'Mr. Wilford and his three sons Aaron, John and Bartholomew, and William and John Pattison' and at the election Mr. Bartholomew Wilford was his proposer. By 1851 the linen industry had disappeared from Northallerton & most other villages. But it stayed in Brompton - 249 looms in 1838, 238 hand loom weavers & 21 ancillary workers in 1851. Brompton linen was noted for its quality. In 1812, during the war with the USA, the Wilford's sold linen to The White House! A directory of 1849 said 'this place is noted for its linen weaving and the best drills manufactured in the country are said to be produced here.' Wilford & Pattison persuaded the Leeds & Stockton railway developers to run it through the village, beside the river, and built their mills close to both. The river provided water for the steam, the railway delivered the coal and took away the finished goods. This was the start of very successful factories which ran to the 1950's, the basis of Brompton's economy. The Pattisons and Wilfords also supported many village activities, supporting the Wesleyan Church and the British School. They continued to be powerful. Bartholomew Wilford became chairman of the new Board of Guardians for N/A and district after 1834. Benjamin Wilford's obituary in 1896 shows he was a JP, Chairman of Board of Guardians, member of County Council and workers at both mills had the day off to go to his funeral! Much linen working was a family affair, for instance in the 1851 census we find the Atkinson family at 24, Water End Thomas Atkinson, 58, head weaver. Maria Atkinson, 56, winder. Jobling Atkinson, 26 weaver. Samuel Atkinson, 23 weaver. Hannah Atkinson,15 winder. Thomas Atkinson, 11 weaver.

   How long did handloom weaving last? The 1881 census still shows some, and there is evidence there were still 3 looms in 1917 (one elderly lady at the meeting recalled her grandfather's looms).

 

Relative Activity at Brompton Flax Mills according to Seal Dates 1781 -1833
  1782 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
                                                                                                           
9                                                                                                          
8                                        

            ? distorted dates

                               
7                                        

            o circular dated

                               
6                                                                                                          
5                                                                                                           
4     ?                                                                                                    
3     ?                                                     ?         o                                    
2                                                           ?         o                                    
1                                                                                                          
  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

From the spread of known flax seals at Brompton it appears that it had relatively small mills operating over a considerable

period of time with a high of 8 bales in 1793 and 4 bales in 1817 .. I say small because by the same token the industrialised

 mills at Bentham used 272 bales in 1826 and 390 bales in 1829 .. remembering there must be seals we have not yet found.

 

   About PeaceHavens - This database is an ongoing project involving the daily finding and identification of Russian Lead Flax Bale Seals from the old disused 18th/19th century Flax Mills of the Industrial Revolution in the UK.    For many decades in the 18th & 19th centuries, Russia was by far the world's greatest exporter of these flax stems via Archangel, St Petersburg, Kronstadt, Narva, Riga, Libau, Memel, Konigsberg, Pilau, Pernau, Revel, and Tilsit and Great Britain was Russia's major customer. Every bale of flax stems was fastened together with a lead seal by a quality control inspector. The discarded stems of the flax with seals still attached were prized as fertilizer by local farmers and were spread onto the land mixed with night soil manure.

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