Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

The PeaceHavens Project

Copyright 2020 © Ged Dodd
aka PeaceHavens Project
Click here for the terms
of free copy & share &
supporting your Project

https://www.facebook.com/groups/PeaceHavensProject/ ..

Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

 INDEX

Scroll down for an item of interest

 

Website design, maps and photos by Ged Dodd - Director of The PeaceHavens Project.

Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

INDEX

 

1853 Hurricane

A,B,C,D,E, dating letters Customs Tax

Aberlady Bay Scotland

Aberdeen Museum and District

Aberdeen in Saskatchewan, Canada.

Adel Beck Flax Mills

Agent names list

Aked's High Mill

Anchor Crescent Symbols

Anchor & Grapnel River & Sea Port

Arbroath - Scotland

Archangel, Archangelsk Distillary

Ardamatzky (Ardamazki)

Bacharov

Bale sizes and weights

Baltic Ports

Baltic Cross Seals

Beetling

Belaying Pin symbol

Belfast - Northern Ireland

Bentham High Mill

Beverley

Black Balsam

Black Death

Bleaching Tags, Bentham & Menston

Bobbins

Breaks Fold Farm Camping

Brechin - Scotland

Bridport - West Dorset

Broadfield Mill - Aberdeen

Bulgarian Customs

Bulla Seals

Caduceus and Hermes

Canadian Fur Seals

Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland

Chester and Cheshire

Circular Dated Seals

Cloth Bale Clamps  

Cog, Cogge

Crediton in Devon

Crescents Stars and *T*'s

Crimping Tools & Symbols

Cromarty - Scotland

Cupar - Scotland

Custom Tax Seals

Cyrillic Alphabet

DATABASE of INSPECTORS

DATABASE of POSTS

Denbigh, North Wales

Dice numbers through the ages on here

Double Balsam

Dockside Inspectors

Dundee - Scotland

Dutch Custom Seals

Easingwold Seals

Ebling (Eblag) in Poland

Email - Ged Dodd

Emperors

Exeter

Eye Customs Seals

FaceBook - PeaceHavens

Falkirk Museum

Farnham Museum

Fife Seals article by John Sullivan

Fish Market

Fishmonger's Company

Flax Trade Facts

Flax/Fur Trade Villages

Folly Gill Twine Mill  

Galeas & Galliots - Trading Ships

Gavrilov Yam, Yaroslavl

Ged's Rules for Hemp Seal Indent

Gold Coin Weight

Goritsy Trading Block

Gostorg State Trading Agency

Gourdon, Scotland

Grading of flax

Great Plague of London

Greenodd

Grower list 

Guano Seals- Icelandic

Guano Seals - Star of David

Hands of Friendship Seals

Hanseatic League

Harrogate and District

Heckling

Hemp Seals

Hemp & Flax Port Inspectors

Helmsley Seals

Hills and Whishaw

HMS Victory

Hull import trade

IDENTIFICATION SERVICE

Inspector designation initials

Inverbervie, Scotland

Ireland

Irkutsk see Kyakhta

Isle of Man

Jews in the Flax Trade

John Hughes - Welshman of Kyakhta

John Marshall

John Sullivan Article on Fife

Ю T - State Customs Tax

Kildin - White Sea - fur trade

Kilmahog

Kirkcaldy in Scotland

Kinghorn Mills

Kirkham in Lancashire

Klaipedo

Konigsberg

Korelev StPB

Kronstadt - Sea port of St Petersburg

Kyakhta, trading town

Lancaster Maritime Museum

Lancashire

Largo, Fife

Leubeck Harbour

Libau - Leipaja

Ligatures & Monograms

Little Patrick Mill

Liverpool Docks, Castle, Mersey

Lost Village of West End

Low Mill

Lubeck - Capitol of Hanseatic League

Magnifying Linen Thread Counter

Malton and Norton

Markington

Matthew Murray

McManus Galleries Dundee - Scotland

Meaning of Abbreviations

Memel

Mold, North Wales

Montrose - Scotland

Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition

Moscow Tax Custom Seals

Napoleonic War

Narva

Non Riga X Crossed Keys

North East Fife - Scotland

Novgored, Novgorod

Novogorodtsov

NP Port Narva Conundrum

P, ИP, NP, SP, SPB, CПБ, WK, WU

Numbers Only Seals

Oudewater, Netherlands

Owner list

Paired Inspectors

Paisley with Johnstone mills

Pavlov Star Seals

Pennybridge

Pernau

Perth

PiLPD Seals

Piracy and Warfare

Portuguese Gold Coin Weight

Post Office Seals

Poulton-le-Fylde

Preston

Pskove

Quayside in Medieval Times

Railway Seals

Regten en Accynsen

Rein (Rhine) Hemp R:H

Retting

Reval, Revel, Tallinn

Riga - Black Balsam

Riga - + City Keys

Riga - x Non Riga Crossed Keys

Riga - German influence

Riga - History

Russian State Arms Seals

Ruthin, North Wales

Rybinsk

Rybnaya Sloboda

Same Name Comparison

Scarborough

Scutching

Ships - Galeas & Galliots

Siberia

Sklad - depot warehouse

Sort 1 2 3

Sovos'yanov

Spindle Whorls

Spinning Wheels

St George's Quay, Lancaster

St Petersburg City Arms

St Petersburg Seals

Stanley, Perth

Star of David

Star Seals

Stars, Crescents and *T*'s

Stritsky Brewery in Riga

Swedish Customs Seals

*T*symbols on seals

Tallinn, Reval

Tax Custom Seals

Tea seals see Kyakhta

Three Pound Twelve Coin Weight

Tilsit

Topsham Hemp Trade

Torpoint

Tow

Trade Tokens

Tubular Seals

Ulverston

Velikoselskoi

Ventspils (Windau)

Village Seals

Visby

Vologda

V.LED owner

VV (W) Symbols

Wales

War Department Seals

Wass Seals

Weather Forecast

West End Mills

West House Mill

Wheel Cranes

Whinny Hill Seal field

Whishaw.A
Whitehaven

Windau (Ventspils)

Wirballen, Lithuania

York Street Mills - Belfast

Zyrardow, Poland

 

Hands Of Friendship Seals

Found in fields where the seals were
predominately dated 1829 and 1831.
The only known seals of this type

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

1812 Hands of Friendship

One Penny Copper Token

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Rare Pavlov Star Seals

Many Jews in St Petersburg were

involved in the Flax trade .

The six-pointed star, the Magen

David, the Shield of David, the

Star of David, is also known as

a hexagram, or Solomon's Seal.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Mistakes by Seal Makers

SS32H ... should be SS12H

 .. they only did 6H, 9H or

 12H flax heads to the bale.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

The first Archangel Seal

found at Folly Gill Mill

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

An antique brass thread counter

used by a travelling cloth buyer to

measure the quality of the linen.

It was found in the seal fields.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Three Pound Twelve brass coin

weight found near the Old Gate

Inn Smithy at West End Mills

which was used to check the

weight of the gold Portuguese

8 Escudos coins brought over to

pay for Linen Goods  c.1800.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

 Riga Balsam = РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -

 

КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ

STATE RAILWAY M.P.S. TELEGRAPH

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Russian Railways

1877 Customs Guards, Porters

Railway Guards, Rural Police,

Interior of Railway Carriage.

click on the thumbnail

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Website design & photos by Ged Dodd

Director - The PeaceHavens Project.
and powered with free uploading from 

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

The size of flax bales.

Whereas bag seals were used on

small bags for sugar and tea etc.

the bale seal was used on bundles

upwards of half a ton each hauled

on a wagon by teams of 4 horses.

POOD was used as a weight for bales,

 about 16.4 kilograms 36.1 pounds,

 63 poods making an English ton.

  60 poods of flax & 40 poods of flax codilla are a "Last" in St Petersburg.

- - - -

A bundle of clean hemp weighs from

 55 to 65 poods. A bundle of Out Shot hemp weighs 48 to 55 poods. A bundle of Half Clean hemp weighs 40 to 45.

          - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

A one pood sports weight kettlebell of 16kg

 

  Pood is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt. Plural: pudi or pudy.  Since 1899 It is approximately 16.38 kilograms and was used in Russia, Belarus, & Ukraine.

 Pood was first mentioned in a number of 12th-century documents. Unlike funt, which came at least in the 14th century from Middle High German: phunt, Old East Slavic: пудъ pud is a much older borrowing from Old Norse: pund which in turn came through the mediation of Old English: pund from Latin: pondus "weight".

               - - - - - - - - -

The English Stone weight is 14 lbs.

The stone weight in other countries varies

City

Country

Term

lbs

Dresden

Germany

Stein

22

20

Mecklenburg
Berlin

Germany

schwerer Stein

22

leichter Stein

11

Danzig
Königsberg

Poland

Russia

großer Stein

33

kleiner Stein

22

Bremen

Germany

Stein Flachs

20

Stein Wolle, Federn

10

Oldenburg

Germany

Stein Flachs

20

Stein Wolle, Federn

10

Kraków

Poland

Stein

25

Osnabrück

Germany

Stein

10

Amsterdam

Netherlands

Steen

8

6

Karlsruhe

Germany

Stein

10

Leipzig,
Weimar

Germany

Stein

22

Breslau

Poland

Stein

24

Antwerpen

Belgium

Steen

8

Prague

Czech Rep

Stein

20

Solothurn

Switzerland

Stein

10

Stockholm

Sweden

Sten

32

Warsaw

Poland

Kamien

25

Vilnius

Lithuania

Kamieni

40

Vienna Austria Stein 20

  - - - - - - - -

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Obsolete_Russian_units_of_measurement 

- - - - - - -

Crossed Key and Sword Seals

German often mistaken for Riga.

Crossed Key & Sword /No 3  /// blank

found at Carnforth, Lancashire.

 

Crossed Key & Sword /No 3  /// blank

found near Coimbra, Portugal.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - -  

 1828 Flax/Tow Imports to UK from

Russia  643,153 cwt
Netherlands  130,529 cwt
Prussia   59,447 cwt
France   39,210 cwt
Italy    1,466 cwt
Australia    2,300 cwt
   All retained for home consumption

 

 1829 Hemp Imports to UK from

Russia  327,379 cwt
East Indies   14,504 cwt
Italy   14,504 cwt
Prussia    3,604 cwt
   All retained for home consumption

 

Flax / Jute Imports in Tons

for Dundee in Scotland

Date Flax, Tow, Hemp Jute
1815 2,187 ----
1820 4,958 ----
1825 13,902 ----
1830 20,496 ----
1835 27,130 ----
1837 15,237 ----
1838 30,850 1,136
1843 26,268 ----
1848 30,585 8,905
1853 47,113 15,400
1858 25,842 30,086
1863 28,988 46,983
1865 44,821 71,702
1867 41,409 63,674
1868 36,712 58,474

 

General Abstract for Scotland

District works employed
Forfarshire  108  46,571
Fifeshire   51  11,579
Perthshire   17   3,740
Kincardineshire    5     120
Aberdeen    1   2,175
Other Parts   15  13,010
Total  197  77,195

 

Shires in Scotland

District works employed
Dundee   72   35,310
Arbroath   18    4,941
Montrose    6    2,483
Forfar    6    1,865
Brechin       4    1,332
Carnoustie    2      650
   ---   ------
FORFARSHIRE  108   46,571
     
Kirkcaldy   18    3,887
Dunfermline    5      410
Leven Area    9    3,044
Eden   16    2,038
Tayport    3      200
    --    -----
FIFESHIRE   51   11,579
     
Blairgowie    9    2,050
Coupar-Angus    3      467
Alyth    2      315
Perth    3       908
     -    -----
PERTHSHIRE   17    3,740

 

Exports from St Petersburgh

in British ships in pood weight

Date Hemp
1825     1,355,232
1826     1,127,659
1827     1,215,194
1828     1,069,601
1829       633,734
1830       952,943

 
Grade Letters Numbers Only Seals
   
A  Clean,
AO  Clean Otborny (select)
AN12П9  faulty reading by JS
ANRA  faulty reading by JS
ARHN  AN owner initials, RH Rein Hemp
B  Badstuben,Drujaner/Coupland flax)
B  Bundle
Е  (Elbing)
F  Fein, Fine
FE  
FF  
FH  Fine Head
FS  Fine Select
H  Head, Hemp, Yellow, Tow
HB  see SRHB
HN  see ARHN
HP  Hemp Picked
K  Kron, Krown, Crown
Л  ЛЬНЯНОЕ (ЛЬНЯ) flax
ЛО  ЛЬНЯНОЕ OTБOPHЬII select flax
M  Marienburg exports flax via Riga
 Marienburg Picked
O  (OTБOPHЬII) Otborny (select)
Ѳ  F = Fein, Fine
ѲЕ  FE Fine Elbing
ѲK  Fine Krown
ѲP  Fine Picked
P  Picked
PK  Picked Krown
PS  Picked Select
П  ПУКН = PUKN = Pick = Sort
ПS  Picked Select
П9  faulty reading by BS
RH  Rein (Rhine) Hemp
RHO  Rein Hemp Otborny (select)
RHP  Rein Hemp Picked
S  Select
SRHB  SB owner initials, RH Rein Hemp

 

 

 NP Variations И.P, P, И П, I П

   

(note that SP is a hemp seal

if it is dated before 1829.)

  

---------------

 

 DICTIONARY

 

 Й, Ь or Ъ. There is no Ъ letter after И in РУКИ, because it ends in a vowel letter. In other words, before the Russian orthographic reform of 1917-1918, a word could only end in a vowel, Й, Ь or Ъ.

A on the end of a word means female or belonging to ..... Pavlova, the factory of Pavlov

A 1805 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal

A. Archangel / APX, APXA, APXAH, APXAHГ, APXAHГEЛ. ( APXAHГEЛЬCK.  Archangel'sk )

АРХАНГЕЛОГОРОД(ский) old fashioned name for Archangel City. now АРХАНГЕЛЬСКИЙ. (ex. Архангельская область - Archangel Oblast). ОГОРОД is a garden.

A11’ in a square on Russian Tax seal stand for Alexander II (1855-1881),

Alexandrosky Works .. a government owned linen mill near to St Petersburg

AMBARES are 2 large warehouses built in St Petersburgh for the special purpose of housing hemp.

AO = Акционерное Общество  = Joint Stock Company, on rare occasions this replaces the inspector designation of ЛД  or ПД. The company inspector was called Cherntsov

AO is also Select Clean on the reverse of some numbers only seals.
A.П (A.P).  Archangel Port

Arshin . The basic unit is the Russian cubit, the arshin, which has been in use since the 16th century. It was standardized by Peter the Great in the 18th century to measure exactly twenty-eight English inches (71.12 cm). Thus, 80 vershoks = 20 piads = 5 arshins = 140 English inches (355.60 cm).  

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsolete_Russian_units_of_measurement 

 AT is Archangel Tsolnery

 

БAЛЬЗAMЪ. BALSAM

ВЪ in (whatever place)

ВЪC,  ВЪ СЕЛЕ, in Selo (village)

ВЫСТавкой. is Exhibition.

BALE SIZE see terms for flax.

BARR FLAX see terms for flax.

BARREN HEMP was Fimble Summer hemp.

'BASA GOSTORGA' translates as 'the warehouse/storehouse of the Gostorg'. The word Gostorg is   made up of parts of two Russian words: GOSudarstvenya, meaning 'state or government' and    TORGovlya meaning 'trading company'.

BELL 1804 dating symbol for City Customs Tax Seal

BERK, BERCOVITZ - Bobbins are sold in roubles per bercovitz.

Б (B). Brack is quality control. БP, БPA, БPAKЬ. (Baraak)

БР. = БPAKOBЩ = ВRACKED (Inspected) So extensive was corruption and bribery in Russian commerce at the beginning of the eighteenth century that a system of Quality Control, known in Russian as brak (English = brack) was introduced by Peter the Great in 1712 in order to determine the quality and correct sorting of certain goods offered for export, the aim being to guarantee the interests of the traders, both sellers and buyers, by official certification of the quality of the goods on sale.

БР. = ВРАТЬЯ = brothers eg. БР.БУБНОВЫ  the brothers Bubnovy

БР. = ВРАТЬЯ = brothers eg. БР.СТОЛБОВЫ  the brothers Stolbovy
Brakovshchik bracker, Quality Control Officer, brakovshchiki brackers, Quality Control Officers

   (When flax or hemp is brought to the principal Russian ports whence it is shipped it is classified   according to its qualities and made up in bundles by sworn inspectors brackers appointed by the    government for the  assortment of that and all other merchandise; These functionaries are said to    perform their task with laudable impartiality and exactness. A ticket and a lead seal is attached to every   bundle of assorted flax or hemp containing the  names of the inspector and owner the sort of flax and   the period when it was selected or inspected, but  although we have the lead seals with the same   information the tickets have not survived.)

BLACK FLAX see terms for flax.

BLAE FLAX [blue flax] see terms for flax.

BOBBINS are made up of 12, 9 or 6 heads of flax, usually refered to in English as bales. A 12 head bobbin of flax usually weighs from three poods to three and a half poods:  9 head bobbins of flax from two poods to two and a half poods:  6 head bobbins proportionally less. The exportation of 6 head is very inconsiderable being mostly used for home consumption. Bobbins are sold in roubles per bercovitz.

ВОДОЧН.ЗАВОДЪ is a Vodka Factory.

BOTTOMS the name given to English ships carrying flax

BRAKEN FLAX see terms for flax.

BRACK HEMP see terms for hemp

Baron Steiglitz Works .. large spinning and weaving factory near Narva specialising in sail cloth.

BRAKOVSHCHIK = a bracker (person).

B 1807 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal

Б 1806 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal
БPAKOBЩ, БPAKOBЩИK (BRAKOVSHIK) Passed Inspection

BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ (VELIKOSELSKOI) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means Veliko Village region ..

BИЛEГOДCKOИ (VILEGODSKOI) flax from Vilegda river region.

ВОД.ЗАВОДЪ Vodka distillary

ВОЛЬНЫЕ СЛУЖИТЕЛИ Vol'nye Cluzhiteli which is floor attendants

BOЛOГДA see (VOLOGDA) city and region

BEPЖБOЛ = VERZHBOL.(OV) = VIRBALIS in Lithuania also called Wirballen

BIT is the part of the key which goes into the lock.

BOW is the part outside the lock that you turn.   see Riga page

BUNDLE .. see terms for flax.

 

CAHKT ПETEPБПOT (SANKT PETERB POT) St Petersburg Port
CAHKT ПETEPБУ:ПOP (SANKT PETERBU POR) St Petersburg Port

CARL HEMP was harvested at the onset of winter. See terms for hemp.

CARELIA was shining silver white flax and was superior grade to Novogorod flax bales.

C.C.C.P.H.K.B.T is Union of Socialist Republics People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade.

Б ГOCTOPГ is SIBerian GOSTORG after 1922

CKЛAД (SKLAD) is a Transport Depot or Warehouse

CKЛAДCKOI  ПРІЕМ (SKLADSKOI PRIEM) is a Warehouse Receipt

СЫНОВЬЯ (SYNOV'Ya) = sons of

CЫPЦOBAЯ (SYRTSOVAYA) natural
CODILLA (Cedilla) (Paklya) ПAKЛЯ is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching
 or the Heckled Tow is used for Tow yarn, twine or stuffing. Hemp Codilla is the refuse after cleansing hemp and this is generally made up in small bundles of one pood which are when shipped bound together in one large bundle consisting of about thirty small ones.

CПБ. SPB .. St Petersburg ... also used as an indicator of flax after 1829. see  CПБ

CПБ.TA.OTP.TOB = CПБ.TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP  St Petersburg Customs Dept. Goods  

Customs Officers are Tsolnery, Chief Customs Officers are Obertsolnery

 is a substitute for the State Arms Double Headed Eagle Customs Logo when the reverse is blank..

C. CEЛO = Selo = Village ..  ДЕРЕВНЯ (Derevhya) means village, countryside, hamlet, settlement.

C is SORT,  3 й C is 3rd SORT

С.ЗАП = СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНЫЙ  = North Western / Ж.Д. = Railroad

СОЛЯНАЯ ПРИСТАНИ Salt Wharf

COPT, COPTЬ (сортировать) SORT, grade, select, screen

CT (ST) Railway Station (СТАНЦИЯ) Stantsiya

CTЛ.3 a flax grading unique in 1831 http://www.peacehavens.co.uk/BSBACHAROV.htm

СУКОННАЯ ФАБРИКА (SUKONNAYA FABRIKA) is a CLOTHING FACTORY.

ЧESKA (CHESKA) Low grade heckled flax,  heckled flax *Ч* (hesanyj len = ‘long line’ i.e. long flax)

ЧИСТА (chista = clean) from a 1731 & 1733 "R" hemp seal

CROSSED KEY AND SWORD are German seals not Riga.

CUSTOMS OFFICERS are TSOLNERY,

CHIEF CUSTOMS OFFICERS are OBERTSOLNERY

 
 
1803 eye 1804 bell 1805 A 1806 Б 1807 B 1808 Г 1809 Д 1810 E
Symbol and Letter Dated City Customs Tax Seals. The seals have a either side.

 

  

Д 1809 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal

 Д (D) DESYATNIK was a Quality Control Officer selected by ten brackers themselves who worked under his (or her) direct supervision to carry out the inspection and certify on their behalf  the bundle of flax or hemp to which the seal was fastened.  Variations found on seals are ДЕС, ДЕСЯCK, ДЕСЯТ,  ДЕСЯТC,  ДЕСЯТCK, ДЕСЯТH, ДЕСЯТHИKЪ,  ДЕСЯТЬHИKЪ, with the Ц suggesting in the abbreviations ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO &   ДЕСЯЦKOИ  are the higher ranking Tsolnery or Customs Officers.

DESATSKIE in the Russian Empire were elected officials from peasants to perform police and various public functions, to observed the purity in the villages, for the purity of water in the river, for the  adoption of fire-fighting measures, for the order during the bidding, bazaars, for the sale of good-quality products, for the production of trade with the DESYATNIK (above), they reported to the police about the garbage, children, the crazy, the dead bodies found, the appearance of thieves, bandits and any emergency incident.

 

D'YAK (Дьяк) is a religious term (from Greek; meaning "servant" in the Church).

The root of Russian names like D'yakov or D'yakonov.

ДВОЙНОЙ РИЖСКИЙ БАЛЬЗАМ is Double Riga Balsam

ДЕРЕВНЯ (Derevhya) in Russian means village, countryside, hamlet, settlement. Selo is village.

ДВИГАТЕЛЬ = DVIGATEL the Carriage Building Works in Talinn

DANTZIG FLAX [Gdańsk  During the 16th century  flax was imported to this country from Dantzig, often as a back cargo for the merchants exporting British Lead through Hull into the Baltic. See terms for flax.

DEN'GI (деньги,) the plural form of Denga, has become the usual Russian word for 'money'.
ДОМ is house, home

DRUANIA exports its flax through Riga.

DUTCH FLAX was probably a term applied to any flax exported through the Dutch ports. See terms for flax.

Dosmotrsshchiki are various inspectors

It would appear that the letter after the Д could relate to a region.

Д = D = Inspector

Д8 = D8 is on 2 flaz seals for Sysoev but the other 3 are ДЗ = DZ
ДA = DA is on flax and hemp seals

ДB = DV (Vologda region). both flax and hemp seals (Insp.Shelepin)
ДC = DS is on flax and hemp seals
ДE = DE is on flax seals (to date)
ДФ = DF is on flax and hemp seals

ДӨ = DTh a strange letter or symbol we have yet to decipher with certainty.
ДГ = DG is on flax and hemp seals (to date)
ДI = DI is on flax seals (to date)
ДИ = DI is on flax and hemp seals

ДII = DII is on hemp seals  (to date)
ДIK = DIK is on hemp seals (to date)
ДIB = DIV is from John Sullivan's book 

ДЮ = DYu is on a flax seal (possibly State Inspector)
ДK = DK is on flax seals (to date) probably Kronshtadt.
ДЛ = DL  flax inspector seals ONLY.
ДЛI = DLI  flax inspector seals ONLY.
ДM = DM is on flax seals and hemp seals. possibly
M = Marienburg or Marienburg Clean, High grade Crown, the source of best quality Livonian flax exported through Riga.

ДN = DN is on flax seals

ДП  = DP is on hemp seals

ДT = DT is on flax seals. (to date)
ДЯ = DYa is on flax seals. (to date)
ДЗ = DZ is on flax seals and hemp seals.

 -    ------ also

ЛД = LD is L'nyanoy Dosmotr (Flax Inspection ONLY)

ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

ПД = PD is Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection ONLY)

ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr) but only when in the inspector definition shown below ПiЛПД.

ПiЛПД = PiLPD= Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection seal (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr)   see the Hemp page.

ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

ЦЦC = TsTsS ( Tsolnery are customs officers)

 

E 1810 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal

ECRU is French for raw or un-bleached linen.

END OF GRADING SYSTEM - The compulsory system of Quality Control of hemp, flax and tow in the port of St Petersburg ended in January 1860. Archangel continued into the early 1900's.

EGYPT FLAX, HEMP and TOW see terms for flax

ENGLISH FLAX [english flex; english fflax] see terms for flax.

ESSINGS FLAX see terms for flax.

EXHIBITION is ВЫСТавкой.

EYE 1803 dating symbol for City Customs Tax Seal

  

F is fein, fine

FABRIKA (ФАБРИКА) is a Factory

FACTOR acts for another, notably a mercantile and colonial agent.

FADGE FLAX see terms for flax.

FIMBLE was Summer flax. See the terms for flax.

FLANDERS FLAX see terms for flax.

FLAX DUB was a term used on the Isle of Man for a Retting Pond.

FLEMISH FLAX is the best for LACE making. See terms for flax.

ФАБРИКА (FABRIKA) is a Factory

 

Г 1808 dating letter for City Customs Tax Seal

г. is Год is God is year ... 1863г is year 1863

ГАВАНЬ is a Harbour, Port

ГЕРБ (GERB) is the GERBOBOE treasury, part of the management of NEOKLADNYH fees.

GIGGING is to dry the Hemp or Flax over a Fire, made in a hole of the ground, which is called the Gigg or Gigg hole; and so laid upon a Flake, after the manner of a Kilne.

GOSudarstvenya means 'state or government'

GOSTORG is made up of parts of two Russian words: GOSudarstvenya, meaning 'state or government' and TORGovlya meaning 'trading company'.

GRADE, CLASS. P (R),  PУ,  PУKA, PУ, (RUKA)

GREEN FLAX see terms for flax.

GREEN HEMP [green housewife's hemp; green drest hemp] see terms for hemp.

GREEN LINEN CLOTH; Linen cloth from Scotland was labelled Green .. see terms for flax.

ГЛАВНАЯ  (GLAVNAYA) Main

Г.У.Н.С - G.U.N.S Главное Управление Неокладных Сборов. (Main Management of Neokladnyh fees.)

      

HECKLED TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling        used for Tow yarns.  (to heckle’ was to dress flax by separating it into its finest fibres)

H (HEAD) A unit of measure for flax consisting of '12 'stricks' (strikes) each of 'about ten handfuls' tied up into a bunch is called a bobbin. According to Randle Holme, twelve of these bunches would make a Kirtle, hence Kirtle flax however, the Dictionary Archive suggest that the number of stricks in a head was not fixed, It was also not used exclusively with flax. Hemp was also measured by the head, but possibly in smaller units, since '3 head' and '2 head' hemp have been noted. It seems 'Head' may also have been used as a unit of measure for Silk.

H also as Head ("головкa" means "шкурки" - "animal skins" in the context "best fur" so by the same token 12H (12 heads) can been thought of as 12 best flax. "From the collected batches of furs, the best examples of skins, the so-called "head", were selected, which partly went to gorget, to pelerines, collars and stoles inside the country, and some were exported abroad for the same purposes. Everything else was processed into fur for socks domestically." https://www.booksite.ru/fulltext/pushzveri/text.pdf

H = Hell, Heel, LIGHT, YELLOW

H = Heide, TOW when used as the base letter  . 

HD = Hoffdreibandt, HOFF'S THREEBAND. (English) from Livonia

HEMP CODILLA is the refuse after cleansing hemp and this is generally made up in small bundles of one pood which are when shipped bound together in one large bundle consisting of about thirty small ones.

HFPK (Hoff) Yellow Fine Picked Crown flax. 

H (N) .. post number the inspector worked from (or possibly the registration number stamped of the seal crimping pliers)

‘H1’ in a square on Russian Tax seal stand for Nicholas I (1825-1855)  and Alexander II (1855-1881),

H.K.B.T. ГОСТОРГ is НАРОДНЫЙ КОМИССАРИАТ ВНЕШНЕЙ ТОРГОВЛИ ie “People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade Gostorg”.

HИЖHOCУXOHCKOИ Sukhona River Region flax.

 

I at the beginning of a surname means "I" and was used before 1918 to replace И, as in Ivanov (ІВАНОВ). If there is an initial before the it name reverts to normal K.Ivanov (К.ИВАНОВ).

IZBORNIKS (Russian: изборник) elected officials.

I.I. the notation used by Hills and Wishaw instead of the normal NP/SPB

I. I and I. I.C perhaps distortions of П.П and П.П.C port hemp inspectors

IVANOVO-VOZNESENSK was the home to the first labour union in Russia called "Nevestka" (bride) because of the high percentage of women workers, which was normal in the flax industry.

   

K has many meanings .. Krown, Kontrol, Kronstadt, Konigsberg

KARTUPELU KONTROL is Potato Control.

KARATSHEV Hemp is consider best and next that from in Belev, but Gshatsk hemp is thought inferior.

КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ = State Railway

KIRTLE was 12 bunches of '12 'stricks' (strikes) each of 'about ten handfuls' tied up into a bunch.

KOLMOGOROD (Kholmoroy est.1584) was the original name of Archangel. (Kolm Vegetable Garden)

КОНОЛИН...  KONOPIL ...  KONOPLYA   is hemp

KONTPOЛ (KONTROL) Control .. check point

КОНТОРА (KONTORA) Office for the Hanseatic League iv various cities. The London kontor was   established in 1320, and stood west of London Bridge near Upper Thames Street, the site now occupied   by Cannon Street station. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weigh house, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of trading activity on the premises.

K = KPOHЪ (Kron) Crown is high quality long strong filament flax. Better grades are PK, FPK & ZK.

K.X.C.Ж.Д = K.Kh.S.Zh.D is the  Kursk-Kharkov-Sebastopol-Railway-Company

KUDEL (TOW)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ,  is the coarse broken part of  hemp after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

KУДEЛЬH KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.  see Codilla

LAST was used as a weight for bales in St Petersburg,  60 poods of flax and 40 poods of flax codilla    make a "last" in St Petersburg. (63 poods make an English ton)

LB is a unit of a Hundred

LETTOW FLAX see terms for flax.

LEWKES HEMP see terms for hemp.

ЛEH, ЛЬНЯ  flax

ЛEHЪ flax, ЛHА БPAK graded flax, ЛHЯH БPAK graded flax

   The nouns indicating the contents of some of the bales are also spanned by the quality indicators, supplementing the information that the process of Quality Control has been completed.  For example, on CUPMS: 1999.52.16, in addition to the indication of the quality control (ЛHЯH. Бpa[К]. = graded flax), the contents are further specified as cedilla, spanned by symbols indicating its quality: 3. ПaК. p (3 codilla [class], i.e. 3rd class codilla).

LIGATURE. When two or more letters are joined together they are called a ligature.  A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or of a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher and is not a monogram.

LITHUANIA exports its flax through Riga.

ЛЬНЯНОЕ. (L'NYANOY)   Flax, Linen

ЛД = LD is the designation for flax inspector (L'nyanoy Dosmotr)

ЛЬНЯНОЕ БPAKOBЩ is flax that has passed inspection with these abbreviations  ЛHAБPA,   ЛHAЯH, ЛHA БPAK,  ЛHЯ БP, ЛHЯH:БPAK

ЛИЧ (LICH) is personal or pertaining to a particular person..

  Л.П (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)
  ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

LOOSE FLAX see terms for flax.

MARIENBURG exports its flax through Riga

МАНУФАКтурной is manufactury.

MANINGBURG FLAX (likely Marienburg flax) see terms for flax.

МЕЛЬНИЦА (Mel'jnitsa) .. Mill

Moscow State Customs Tax seals see Tax Custom Seals

МОСКОВСКой is Moscow.

МОВКОВ(СКАЯ)   ПОЛИТЕХ(НИЧЕСКИЙ)  ВЫСТ(АВКА) the Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition (1872)

MONOGRAM When two or more letters are joined together they are called a ligature.  A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or of a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher and is not a monogram.

 MONTHS on Russian railway seals
 ЯНВ  ЯНВАРЬ  JANUARY
 ФЕВ  ФЕВРАЛЬ  FEBRUARY
 МАР  МАРТ  MARCH
 АПP  АПРЕЛЬ  APRIL
 МАЙ  МАЙ  MAY
 ИЮН  ИЮНЬ  JUNE
 ИЮЛ  ИЮЛЬ  JULY
 АВГ  АВГУСТ  AUGUST
 СЕП  СЕПТЯБРЬ  SEPTEMBER
 ОКТ  ОКТЯБРЬ  OCTOBER
 НОЯ  НОЯВРЬ  NOVEMBER
 ДЕК  ДЕКАБРЬ  DECEMBER

M.K.B.Ж.Д = M.K.V.Zh.D  Moscow-Kiev-Vorenezh-Railway-Company

M.И.OДHOДШEBCKAЯ  C  CЫHOBЬЯMИ  (M.I.ODNOUSHEVSKAYA  S  SYNOV'YAMI) ...   Arms of Russian State

MUITA (MUITINES) is Riga Customs Tax Authority in Latvia

MUSCOVY FLAX, LINEN, YARN see terms for flax.

МУКОМЛЬНАЯ (MUKOML'NAYA) Flour

 

N (H) post number the inspector worked from (or possibly the registration number stamped on the seal crimping pliers) 

N. Norwegian

NP means tax was paid on a flax bale to the Customs in Narva, (it does not mean it was shipped from Narva Port. (die casting errors are И.P, P, И.П, I.П)

NASTOYASHCHII - НАСТОЯЩИЙ  PИЖCKИЙ Genuine as in Genuine Riga Black Balsam

NARVA FLAX. Narva is a port in Livonia bordering the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. see terms for Flax.

NEVESTKA was the first labour union in Russia called "Nevestka" (bride) because of the high percentage  of women workers, which was normal in the flax industry.

NIVILEGODSKOI Lower Sukhona flax

NIZHNOSUKONSKOI  (HИЖHO CУXOHCKOИ) Sukhona River Region flax.

NOVOGOROD was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

 NEOKLADNYH FEES. The main management of non-okladnyh fees and barrel sale of pitej (Tax on   Alcohol)1896-1919. The Division of Non-okladnyh fees had been running excise fees with  grape, fruit, berry and raison wines, with tobacco, sugar, crews yeast, lighting oil oils and lighting matches, cigarette liners and sliced tissue paper (from1909), Tea (from 1916), and also in charge of art fees: Armorial works, passports (before their cancellation in 1897, other than duty from foreign ports) and other non-payment fees and duties; Office of the former excise duty with salt and drinking arrears. The Division was located in the department of the Gerbovoe treasury, which carried out the reception, storage.

 Oberland (a flax area in Switzerland) Oberland flax come to the UK via Konigsberg, Elbing &c and is little esteemed in the British markets.

Obertsolnery are Chief Customs officers

Oblast is an administrative division of a City or region .

O = OTБOPHЬII (OTBORNI) is Select grade

ОСН. ОСНОВАНА is founded in (year) established.

ОДОБРЕНО is approved.

ОДОБРЕНО МОСКОВСКой МАНУФАКтурной ВЫСТавкой. (Approved by the Manufacture Exhibition in Moscow 1865)

ОДОБРЕНо МЕДИЦИНскимъ СОВЕТомъ ВЪ С.П.Б. (Approved by the Medical Council in Saint Petersburg.)

OGOROD Vegetable Garden. АРХАНГЕЛОГОРОД(ский) old fashioned name for Archangel City.

ОТДеление ГОСУДарственного БАНКА - Department of the State Bank.

OTPACЛЬ (Department) TOBAP (Goods)

OTП. (ОТПРАВКА) OTPRAVKA is Shipment. *C.П.Б.T.OTП.TO seems to be only on UK seals.

OUTSHOT see terms for flax and hemp.

OUTSORE see terms for hemp

Ov is "son of" ... however it could be your profession like "a smith" - КУЗНЕЦ and a son of the smith could be called КУЗНЕЦОВ. And КУЗНЕЦОВА for a daughter (and for his wife). So it's not every time does "ov" show the name of their father.

 

P is an abbreviated designation for NP. see  P, NP, SP, SPB, CПБ, WK, WU

P. Poland

P (R),  PУ,  PУKA,  (RUKA) grade, class, pick (2 PУКИ (2 ruki) (= 2nd sort / 9-head)

pyka (ruka = hand sorted, hand picked) to indicate quality.

PASS HEMP was 3rd quality Russian hemp, inferior to Outshot hemp, above Codilla. See Hemp terms.

PATER NOSTER FLAX  is the refuse of the Rakitzer flax.

PEN.  ПEH.  Hemp

PEN'KA.  ПEHЬKA  Hemp

PERNAU and Revel flax exports consist of Marienburg cut Risten Hafs three band and other three band.

PERNOV is another name for PERNAU, PARNU.

PETERBOROUGH FLAX see terms for flax.

PETERBOROUGH HEMP see terms for hemp.

РИГА ГОРОД (RIGA GOROD) RIGA CITY

PIЖAПOPTA Riga Port

РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ = Riga Balsam

РИЖСКІЙ ЧЕРНЫЙ ТРАВНЫЙ БАЛЗАМЪ Riga Black Herb Balsam

РИГСК (Riga)  TAMOЖHЯ (Customs) OTPACЛЬ (Department) TOBAP (Goods)

PIATINAS were administrative provinces.

POGOSTI were rural fiscal and administrative districts.

POLONIA is a name for Poland.

POSADNIKS participated in the diplomatic talks and stimulated better trade conditions.

PORT.  П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA

POOD used as a weight for bobbin bales, equivalent to about 16.4 kilograms (36.1 pounds) in 1545 - 1555  (63 poods make an English ton) 60 poods of flax and 40 poods of flax codilla make a "last" in St Petersburg.  (Pood, is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt. Plural: pudi or pudy. Since 1899 It is approximately set to 16.38  kilograms. It was used in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. Pood was first mentioned in a number of 12th-   century documents.  Unlike funt, which came at least in the 14th century from Middle High German: phunt, Old East Slavic: пудъ pud is a much older borrowing from Old Norse: pund which in turn came through the mediation of Old English: pund from Latin: pondus "weight".)

ПOPTCAHKTПETEPБУРГ Port Saint Petersburg

ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ СТРАЖА PORGANICHNAYA STRAZHA (Border Guard)

ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ ТАМОЖЕННАЯ СТРАЖА PORGANICHNAYA TAMOZHENNAYA STRAZHA (Border Customs Guard) "On August 5, 1827, Emperor Nicholas I approved the Regulation on the formation of a border customs guard (ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ ТАМОЖЕННАЯ СТРАЖА) based on military principles in Russia. Originally created exclusively to combat smuggling on the western border, by the end of the 1830s, the guards began to protect the state border of the empire, within the border territory of the empire to solve the problems of protecting its territorial, military, economic and political interests, quarantine supervision, detention of fugitives, deserters and tramps. At the same time, the range of tasks of the border guards has expanded from decade to decade. Since 1835, the customs border guard first became known as the "border guard" (ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ СТРАЖА) throughout the entire western border of the empire."

ПРИГОТ.(ОВЛЕН) Prepared .. Riga Balsam

ПРИГОТОВИЛЪ А.ВОЛЬФШМИТЪ РИГА  Prepared by A.Wolfsmith of Riga

ПРОДУКТЫ ПИТАНИЯ (Food Stuffs or Food Supplies)

PSKOVE was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

ПAK.БРAK  is Codilla.

ПAKЛЯ.  PAKLYA (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling used for Tow yarn, twine or stuffing. (3. ПaК. p is 3 codilla [class], i.e. 3rd class codilla).

ПAKЛЯ ЧECKA heckled codilla low grade flax for tow.

ПД = PD is the inspector designation for hemp (Penkovy Dosmotr).

ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr) in special circumstances ..

ПiЛПД = PiLPD = Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr) PiLPD

ПЛОМБА СВИНЦОВАЯ = Lead Seal

ПЛОМБА ОТ ВАЛЬЗАМА = Balsam Seal

ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

ПEH1. PEN1 first grade hemp

ПEH2. PEN2 second grade hemp

ПEH3. PEN3 third grade hemp

ПEHЬKA. PEN'KA  Hemp

П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA.  Port {Dockside}

ПИК и ВОД.ЗАВОДЪ Liquer & Vodka distillary

ПРІЕМ (PRIEM) is a Receipt (for a warehouse)

ПУКН = PUKN = PICK a term which replaced sort and grade also called Pink .

 

PIГA. Riga

РИГСК. Riga

PIЖOПOPTA. Riga Port

PИЖCKИИ ЧEPHЫИ БAЛЬЗAMЪ. Riga Black Balsam

ГОЛОВКА means "шкурки" - "animal skins" in the context "best fur" so by the same token 12H (12 heads) can been thought of as 12 best flax.

PУКИ = RUKI = hand, sorted by hand, graded by hand.

РУСЕНСЦИЯ МИТНИЦА, (RUSENSTSIYA MITENTSA),  RUSSIAN CUSTOMS (Bulgarian)

 

QUARTER FLAX see terms of flax.

QUEENSBOROUGH is an old name of the German town, Konigsburg

QUINSBOROUGH is KONIGSBERG

 

REVEL and Pernau flax exports consist of Marienburg cut Risten Hafs three band and other three band.

REFUSE FLAX (hards) see terms for flax;

RHINE also found as 'rein' and 'rine'. The term comes from the German 'reinhanf', meaning literally    'clean hemp'.  The term was applied to a fine quality of Russian hemp imported through the Baltic port of Riga; often called (though not in the Dictionary Archive) Riga rhine. In one document it was valued at 27s the Cwt as compared with Pass Hemp or Riga Hemp at 22s. [Inventories (1671)].
RIGA (RIGAER) =
 PИГA,  PИЖ,  РИЖСК, РИЖСКА, РИЖСКИЙ

Riga Balsam = РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ

RIGAS MUITA is Riga Customs Tax Authority in Latvian in 20th Century - 19th Century in Russian.

Riga Flax Grades  K, PK, FPK, SPK, HK, HPK, HSPK  .. see the table below..

RIGISCO FLAX see terms for flax.

RING FLAX see terms for flax.

ROUGH FLAX and HEMP see terms for flax.

RUSLUIE were a community of Dutch origin living in St. Petersburg, Russia. They originally came from the city of Vriezenveen. One of the most famous members of the community was Vasily Ivanovich Berkov, a shipbuilder and translator of European literature on shipbuilding into Russian.

SALT WHARF..  СОЛЯНАЯ ПРИСТАНИ

SCUTCHING TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is HeckledTow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling used for Tow yarns.

SHORT FLAX see terms for flax.

SHORTS is often found in the form of 'short hemp', see terms for flax.

SHURKI (ШКУРКИ) are animal skins, furs.

SIBERIAN GOSTORG (CИБ ГOCTOPГ) after 1922

SKLAD (CKЛAД) is a Transport Depot, Warehouse, Storage & (ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМЬ is a Trading House)

SOTSKIYS (Russian: сотский,) an official who represented a hundred households.

SNAIL is a poor quality of Flax, similar to or identical with Snouting and Tow.

SNOUTING is a poor quality of Flax, similar to or identical with Snail and Tow.

SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY  Ю.В.Ж.Д / ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНАЯ ЖЕЛЕЗНАЯ ДОРОГА

SPRUCE  FLAX and HEMP comes from the region now called Prussia. See terms for flax.

STONE The stone or stone weight  is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds.  Before the early 19th century, as in England, the stone varied both with locality and with commodity. For example, the Belfast stone for measuring flax equalled 16.75 avoirdupois pounds. The most usual value was 14 pounds. Among the oddities related to the use of the stone was the practice in County Clare of a stone of potatoes being 16 lb in the summer and 18 lb in the winter. See the terms for Hemp.
STRING FLAX see terms for flax.

SUKONNAYA FABRIKA (СУКОННАЯ ФАБРИКА) is a Clothing Factory.

SP is an abbreviated designation for SPB. see  SP

SPB. CПБ  St Petersburg .. also used to designate hemp seals before 1829 & flax after 1829 when on the reverse of seals. see  SPB, CПБ

SPB dated before 1829 means tax was paid on a hemp bale to the Customs in St Petersburg. It does not mean it was shipped from St Petersburg.

SPB dated after 1829 means tax was paid on a flax bale to the Customs in St Petersburg, again, it does not mean it was shipped from St Petersburg. 

ST PETERSBURG (CAHKTПETEPБ) SANKT PETERB

STATE RAILWAY =  КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ  Railway

SPOLYYCHEGODSH a region on the Vilegda river in Vologda Province which produced high quality flax.

STEEL HEMP is the female plants of hemp. See terms for hemp

SUFFOLK HEMP see terms for hemp.

SUKHONA is a river in the Vologda Province from where the Ustyug region produced high quality flax.

SWEDISH CUSTOMS SERVICE is TULLVERKET, founded in 1636.

SYRTSOVAYA (CЫPЦOBAЯ) natural

 

TERMS FOR FLAX AND HEMP

 

T is usually TAMOЖHЯ, ТАМОЖЕННАЯ (TAMOZEHNNAYA) = CUSTOMS TAX

T is ТРАВНАГО (Herbal Balsam)

TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP = Customs Department Goods

ТАМОЖЕННЫЙ ОКРУГ (Custom District)

ТАможня ПРИграничной ТОрговли (Frontier Trade Customs). In Russia since 1811, 11 customs districts were formed along the European border, to which another 2 districts were added in 1816, and in 1818 three (subsequently 4) districts along the Asian border

TAYPOГ = TAUROGEN = now TAURAGE in Lithuania 

T.D = Т.Д = ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМЬ = TRADING HOUSE and a (SKLAD (CKЛAД) is a  Transport Depot or Warehouse.

TEAR OF FLAX  is 'fine flax, or dressed flax, having all the course Hards taken from it' See terms for flax.

TEAR OF HEMP denotes fine, delicate, of the best quality; see terms for hemp.

ТЕЛЕГРАФЪ = TELEGRAPH

A TICKET and a lead seal is attached to every bundle of assorted flax or hemp containing the  names   of  the inspector and owner the sort of flax and  the period when it was selected or inspected, but    although we have the lead seals with the same information the tickets have not survive.

THIESENHAUSEN exports its flax through Riga.

TOBAP (Goods)

ТО could mean ТАМОЖЕННЫЙ ОКРУГ (Custom District), as well as ТОВАРЫ (goods)

ТОВАРИЩЕСТВО Partnership

ТОВАРИЩЕСТВО  НАРВСКОЙ  СУКОННОЙ  МАНУФАКТУРЫ is Partnership of Narva Cloth Manufactory

TOPPED HEMP see terms for hemp.
TOPPINGS see terms for hemp.

TORGovlya means 'Trading Company'

TORG.ДОМ is a Trading House.

TOW (KUDEL)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ, KУДEЛЬH is the coarse broken part of hemp or flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes. See terms for flax.

TOW YARN is the short broken fiber of flax, hemp, or jute used for yarn, twine, or stuffing.

ТРАВНЫЙ БАЛЗАМЪ   Herbal Balsam

ТРАВНАГО БАЛЬЗАМА Herbal Balsam

ТРФЗРГТП is Т(оварищество) Р(усско)-Ф(ранцузских) З(аводов) Р(езинового), Г(уттаперчевого)

 и Т(елеграфного) П(роизводств) под фирмой "П(роводник)". which means Partnership of Russian-

 French factories of rubber, gutta-percha and telegraph production under the firm "Provodnik."

TRICOT is Dutch for Fine Knitwear.

TUCH UND TRICOT is Cloth and Fine Knitwear. http://www.peacehavens.co.uk/BSRIVERSEA.htm

TULLVERKET is the Customs Service of Sweden, founded in 1636.

 
   Ц  Tsolnery are CUSTOMS OFFICERS which would suggest ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO, ДЕСЯЦKOИ  are high ranking inspectors.

AT is Archangel Tsolnery

 

UNDRESSED FLAX and HEMP .. see terms for flax.

USTYUG is a region on the Sukhona river in the Vologda Province   which produced high quality flax.

 

V = Voblast an administrative division of a State. (Oblast is an    administrative division of a City).

V.ARCHANGELESK = B.АРХАНГЕЛѢСКЬ an administrative division incorporating Archangel City..

VELIKOSELSKOI (BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means Veliko Village region.

VERZHBOL.(OV) = BEPЖБOЛ = VIRBALIS in Lithuania also called Wirballen

VIATKA (VYATKA) an area of long fibre flax and Tow for Archangel.

VILEGODSKOI (BИЛEГOДCKOИ) high quality flax from the Vilegda river "Spolvychegodsh" region in Vologda Province..

VOLOGDA (BOЛOГДA) a city and region found on the seals of   HILLS & WHISHAW COMPANY.

 

WASNIKOW being shining silver white flax was superior grade to Novogorod flax.

WATERED was applied to to flax and hemp that had been rotted or retted. See terms for flax.

WELL HEMP see terms for flax.

WHARF .. ПРИСТАНИ

WHITE HEMP and FLAX see terms for flax.

WHITE RUSSIA was a source of best quality flax for Riga

WILNA FLAX.. a fine flax originally exported via Memel and Konigsberg until the arrival of the Edlykuhu railway whereupon it was transported directly to Konigsberg.

WINTER HEMP was harvested at the onset of winter. See terms for hemp.

WK is an abbreviated designation for a flax seal. see WK

WU is an abbreviated designation for a flax seal. see WU

YAROSLAVL PROVINCE. Most of the flax produced here was kept in Russia for Yaroslavl Linen. 

YUFT is a special Russian leather.

Ю.B.Ж.Д = Yu.V.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

Юго-Восточная железная дорога  = South Eastern Railroad. 

Ю.З.Ж.Д = Yu.Z.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

Юго-Западный железная дорога  =  South Western Railroad.

ЗАВ. = ЗАВОД = ЗАВОДA = Plant, factory, distillery. Riga Balsam.

ZABR, ZABRACK, (ЗAБP, ЗAБPAKЪ) lowest quality hemp
Ж.Д = Zh.D = ЖEЛEЗHAЯ ДOPOГA = Railroad Company

 ЗAИЧИHA, ZAICHINA is a hare, associated with Dunilovo skin traders

 

1-COPTЬ. 1st Sort, Firsts, clean

2-COPTЬ. 2nd Sort, Seconds, short (Outshot)

3-COPTЬ. 3rd Sort, Thirds, half clean

 

 The principal sorts of Russian flax imported into this country are St Petersburgh, Narva, Riga, Revel, Pernau, Liebau, Memel, with Oberland from Switzerland and Dutch flax. The St Petersburgh and Narva flax are nearly of the same quality. Both sorts come to us in bundles of twelve, nine and six heads. The Riga flax seems to deserve the quality preference of any imported from the Baltic. It is the growth of the provinces of Marienburg, Druania, Thiesenhausen and Lithuania. The best Marienburg is called simply Marienburg M or Marienburg clean, the second quality cut GM, and the third risten dreyband RD. Of the three other provinces the first quality bears the name of rakitzer as Druania rakitzer DR,  Thiesenhausen rakitzer TR, and Lithuania rakitzer LR. The cut flax of these three provinces is the second quality and to the third quality belong the Badstub and cut B and BG, the paternoster PN and hafs three band HD.  

  Badstub and paternoster is the refuse of the rakitzer flax and the three band again the refuse of the former sorts and consequently very ordinary. The Revel and Pernau consists of Marienburg cut risten hafs three band and three band. The Liebau and Memel growths are distinguished by the denomination of four and three band. These two sorts as well as the Oberland flax come via Konigsberg, Elbing &c and are little esteemed in the British markets. Flanders or Dutch flax is well dressed and of the finest quality.

 

      From the late 18th Century Riga had a method of grading flax for sale on the world

        markets which, unfortunately, was committed to paper, and not put on the seals.

    Flax Grade Letters (1863) Belfast Linen Trade Circular and others.

   The letter on the right of the group was called the Base Letter to which other letters were

    added at the front to further describe the flax. Riga gradeswere also used at other ports.

   

3 = Threeband is 3rd grade flax

4 = Fourband is superior to 3-band , both exported to England from Libau & Memel.

A = cleaned.

B = Badstuben is a refuse grade of the top quality Rakitzer flax from Drujaner & Coupland regions.

BG = Badstuben Geschnitten, 3rd grade Badstuben Cut is the refuse of the rakitzer flax

CM = Crown Marienburg.

CR = Courland Rakitzer was not as good as the other Rakitzers

CPH = Crukken Pass Hemp .. preferred types are from Russia and Poland

D = Driebandt, Threeband. The City Arms used alone for this 3rd grade Threeband flax in Memel.

DC = Druania Crown from Tilsit

DD = Drujaner Dreibandt, Drujaner Threeband .

DR = DruanIa (Drujaner) 2nd grade Rakitzer, High Quality White Russian . 

DRD = Drujaner Risten Dreibandt, Drujaner Bundle Threeband was fine in fibre, moderately long, clean, soft, white, silver coloured and fit for spinning the finest yarns. .

DW = Dreibandt Wrack, 3rd grade Threeband Brack

F = Fein, Fine

FHD = Fein Hoff's Driebandt, Fine 3rd grade Hoff's Threeband;

FPHD = Fein Puik Hoff's Driebandt, Fine Picked 3rd grade Threeband. (Portuguese)

FPK = Fein Puik Kron, Fine Picked Crown.

FPSD = Fein Puik Slansky Driebandt, Fine Picked Slanitz Threeband, Fine Pink Slansky threeband.

FWPCM = Fine White Picked Crown Marienburg flax from the port of Koenigsberg. 

G. German

G = BEST from Pernau

G = Geschnitten, cut rejected crown.

G = Grau, Grey.

GM = MG = Marienburg Geschnitten, Second Quality Marienburg flax

GRD = Geschnitten Risten Dreibandt, cut bundle threeband.

GW = Giligen Brack, Low Grade Threeband.

H = Hell, Heel, Light, Yellow.

H = Heide, TOW when used as the base letter  . 

HD = Hoffdreibandt, Hoff's Threeband (English) from Livonia, Light Driebandt.

HFPK (Hoff) Yellow Fine Picked Crown flax. 

K = KPOHЪ (Kron) Crown is high quality long strong filament flax. Better grades are PK, FPK & ZK.

KPC = Konigsberg Podolia Crown from Tilsit

KRK = Kourland Rakitzer Kron, High Quality Courland Rakitzer Crown.

LC = Lithuanian Czukken hemp is as Rein Hemp but less oily and soft.

LD = Leiden Dreibandt, Lieden Threeband.

LD = Lithuanian Dreibandt, Lithuanian Threeband.

LD = Livonian Dreibandt, Lindlandischan Threeband from Livonia

LH = Livonian Hoffdreibandt, Livonian Threeband Hoff from Livonia

LOD = Livonian Ordinary Driebandt, Threeband, or Low Ordinary Driebandt.

LR = Lithuanian 2nd grade Rakitzer, High Quality Lithuanian flax but not as good as the other Rakitzers

LRK = Lithuanian Rakitzer Kron, High Quality Lithuanian Krown flax

LS = Lithuanian Slanitz .. dew retted exported via Riga .. also called Wellish Slanitz or Wiasma Slanitz

M = Marienburg or Marienburg Clean, High grade Crown, the source of best quality Livonian flax for Riga.

possibly Marienburg Badstube, a second grade flax from Riga .

MG = GM =Marienburg Geschnitten, Second Quality Marienburg.

MR = Marienburg Rakitzer = equivalent quality to Rein Hemp, Rhine Hemp

MRC =  MC = Mohilow Russian Czukken hemp

MRD = Marienburg Risten Dreibandt, Marienburg Bundle Threeband.

NB = Notabene is another name for Paternoster

NC = Newstadt Crown from Memel

NP = Paternoster is also Badstuben Cut (Sent to Portugal) is the refuse of the Rakitzer flax

O = OTБOPHЬII (OTBORNI) is Select grade

Obsolete Russian Measurement https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsolete_Russian_units_of_measurement 

OC = Oberland Crown via Tilsit from Oberland in Switzerland.

OD = Ordinary Driebandt, Threeband.

OH = OUTSHOT is short second sort hemp. 

P = PICKED,  Puik (Pink)

PD = Puik Driebandt, Picked Threeband,   pink threeband.

PH = Puik Heide, Picked Tow flax

PH = PASS HEMP .. usually from Lithuania or Samogitia.

PHD = Puik Hoff's Driebandt, Picked Threeband. (French) Pink Threeband from Livonia.

PK. Pass Krown (flax) is very short but clean and  free of woody particles.

PK = Picked Krown (Pink Kron) flax.

PLD = Puik Livonian Dreibandt, Picked Linlandischan Threeband, Pink Livonian Dreibandt from Livonia.

PSD = Puik Slansky Driebandt, Picked Slanitz Threeband,  pink Slansky threeband

PW = Puik Wrack, Picked Brack, Pink Wrack flax

PZ (ПЗ) is possibly ПEH ЗAБPAKЪ lowest quality hemp codilla.

R (chista = clean) from Hemp seal of 1733

R = Rakitzer a first class type of flax

R = Risten, Bundle.

RC = MRC = Mohilow Russian Czukken hemp

RD = third quality cut Risten Dreyband Marienburg flax.

RG = Rakitzer Geschnitten, lowest grade of Crown Cut Rakitzer.

RH (MR) Rein (Rhine) Hemp is the longest best hemp, oily, strong and free of Codilla and woody particles .. sometimes listed as MR = Marienburg Rakitzer

RSC = Russian Slanitz Crown from Memel

S. Select is soft, silk-like flax in 3 grades

S. Spinning grade

S. Superior grade

S = Sanft, Sweet, Superior

SD = Slansky Driebandt, Slanitz Threeband.

SFHD = Superior Fine Hoff's Threeband.

S G = cut

SH = Slansky Heide, Slanitz Tow

SPK = Superior Picked Krown

TR = Thiesenhausen 2nd grade Rakitzer, a type of High Quality Lithuanian flax grown on the estate of Count Thiesenhausen was of long harle, strong, even, clean, white and soft.

W = Weiss, White .. is made up in bundles of 12, 9 and 6 heads called bobbins.

W = Wrack (Brack) Bracked flax

WC = Wilna Crown from Memel

WFPHD White Fine Picked, Yellow (Hoff) Threeband flax

WFPK White Fine Picked Crown flax

WK = Wilma Krown on reverse of seals replacing NP

WS = Wellish Slanitz or Wiasma Slanitz

XHDX = Extra Hoff's Threeband flax

XRX = Extra Rakitzer flax

ZABR, ZABRACK, (ЗAБP, ЗAБPAKЪ) lowest quality hemp

ZK = Zinc Crown (Zins Kron) flax

     

 

The Absence of Flax and

Hemp Seals from the Baltic State Ports around the end

 of the 1840's.

 British Merchants lost faith in the grading of flax and hemp from the Baltic States and arranged a new system in 1829 .. seemingly solving the problem but this too finally collapsed around 1850 with no further seals to be found.

  However faith in Archangel grading was high and the Archangel port seals continued to be used well until the end of the century.

   So unfortunately of the 20,000 tons of flax and hemp imported into the port of Arbroath in 1881-82 from the Baltic States none had seals .. but we did find 2 from Archangel, with more out there to be found.

Flax, Hemp & Tow Imports

for Arbroath 1881 - 1882

(From Arbroath Harbour: Imports and Exports 1881-83)

imported from

type

tons

seals

Riga

Riga

Riga

flax

hemp

tow

13,505

   369

   111

none

Pernau

Pernau

flax

tow

 1,815

   131

none

St Petersburg

St Petersburg

flax

tow

 1,953

    97

none

Cronstadt

flax

   436

none

Reval

Reval

flax

tow

   860

   226

none

Memel

Memel

flax

tow

   818

     1

none

Narva

Narva

flax

tow

   200

     1

none

Konigsberg

Konigsberg

flax

hemp

   157

    27

none

Libau

flax

   194

none

Archangel

Archangel

flax

tow

   604

   369

2

DICE NUMBERS

   After looking at hundreds of dice in dozens of museums and archaeological depots across the Netherlands, Eerkens and his co-author, Alex de Voogt, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, were able to assemble and analyze a set of 110 carefully dated, cube-shaped dice. Their findings were published in the journal Acta Archaeologica in December. The researchers found that:

-- Dice made before 400, or in Roman times, are highly variable in shape, size, material and configuration of numbers.

-- Dice are very rare between 400 and 1100, corresponding to the Dark Ages.

-- When dice reappear around 1100 they are predominantly in the "primes" configuration, where opposite numbers tally to prime numbers (1-2; 3-4; 5-6), a numbering style that was also popular in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Early medieval dice also tend to be quite small relative to their Roman predecessors.

-- Around 1450 the numbering system quickly changed to "sevens" where opposite sides add up to seven (6-1; 5-2; 3-4). Dice also became highly standardized in shape, and also were made larger again. Standardization may be, in part, a by-product of mass production.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Modern Cyrillic Alphabet

 

A=A, B=V, Б=B, C=S, Ч=CH, Д=D, E=E, И=I, Ё=O, Э=EH, Ф=F, Г=G, H=N, K=K, Л=L, M=M, O=O, Ө=F,Th.

  П=P, Р=R, Ж=ZH, Ш=SH, Щ=SHCH, T=T, Ц=TS, У=U, Ю=YU, Я= YA, ѣ=YE, Х= KH, З = Z, Ы = Y,  Ь Ъ=' "

The History of the Cyrillic Alphabet

Learn_RussianThe Cyrillic alphabet owes its name to the 9th century Byzantine missionary St. Cyril, who, along with his brother, Methodius, created the first Slavic alphabet—the Glagolithic—in order to translate Greek religious text to Slavic. It is on the basis of this alphabet that the Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10th century AD by the followers of the brothers, who were beatified as saints.  Based on the Greek ceremonial script, the original Cyrillic alphabet included the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet and 19 letters for sounds specific to the Slavic language. The Cyrillic alphabet has gone through many reforms in both Russia and other countries. In Russia, the first reformer of the Cyrillic was printer and publisher Ivan Fyodorov. He eliminated the letters Е and С and many forms of the letter О. Most reforms saw the number of letters decrease and the simplicity of their inscription increase. But the reverse has also happened: at the end of 18th century the Russian writer and historian Nikolay Karamzin suggested to introduce the letter Ё. Letters Э and Й were officially added to the alphabet in 18th century.   The Cyrillic alphabet achieved its current form in 1708 during the reign of Peter the Great. He introduced lower case characters (before all letters were written with capital letters) and mandated the use of westernized letter forms, making the modern Cyrillic similar to the modern Latin font.  The very existence of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia was once under threat. In 1919 there was an idea to replace it with the Latin one and bring it into harmony with the alphabet used in Western countries. That could have made the process of learning Russian much easier for some, but this was not to be and we can still enjoy the masterpieces of Russian literature in their original script.  Today Cyrillic is the third official script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek scripts. It is used in over 50 different languages, especially those of Slavic origin, mainly in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. In Russia the Old Slavic language, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet has been historically used for religious services, and is sometimes used for these purposes today. The modern Russian alphabet differs from its forefather dramatically, and only experts will be able to tell how the letters of the original Cyrillic alphabet looked like and were read in texts using it.      Courtesy of RT.News

 

 

Relative Activity at the Mills according to Seal Dates 1776 -1838

  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                         

Bentham Mills

       
                                                                                    Aked's High Mill                              
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                   

 

                                           
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                  Little Patrick Mill                                
                                                           

West House Mill

                                                         
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
          Knaresborough                        Cumbria                                                                          
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                     
  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38