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Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

 INDEX

Scroll down for an item of interest

 

  (A collection of notes for my own use but feel free to use them or correct me)

If you can not find what you are looking for please email me and I will add it to the index

Website design, maps and photos by Ged Dodd - Director of The PeaceHavens Project.

Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

 

INDEX

 

Aberlady Bay Scotland

Aberdeen Museum and District

Adel Beck Flax Mills

Agent names list

Aked's High Mill

Anchor Crescent Symbols

Anchor & Grapnel River & Sea Ports

Arbroath - Scotland

Archangel, Archangelsk

Ardamatzky (Ardamazki)

Bale sizes and weights

Baltic Ports

Baltic Cross Seals

Beetling

Belaying Pin symbol

Belfast - Northern Ireland

Bentham High Mill

Black Balsam

Black Death

Bobbins

Bridport - West Dorset

Broadfield Mill - Aberdeen

Bulla Seals

Caduceus and Hermes

Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland

Chester and Cheshire

Circular Dated Seals

Cloth Bale Clamps  

Cog, Cogge

Crescents Stars and *T*'s

Crimping Tools

Cromarty - Scotland

Custom Tax Seals

Cyrillic Alphabet

DATABASE of INSPECTORS

DATABASE of POSTS

Denbigh, North Wales

Double Balsam

Dundee - Scotland

Dutch Custom Seals

Easingwold Seals

Ebling (Eblag) in Poland

Email - Ged Dodd

Exeter

Eye Customs Seals

FaceBook - PeaceHavens

Fife Seals article by John Sullivan

Fish Market

Flax Trade Facts

Flax/Fur Trade Villages

Folly Gill Twine Mill  

Galeas & Galliots - Trading Ships

Ged's Rules for Hemp Seal Indent

Gold Coin Weight

Goritsy Trading Block

Gostorg State Trading Agency

Grading of flax

Great Plague of London

Greenodd

Grower list 

Guano Seals- Icelandic

Guano Seals - Star of David

Hands of Friendship Seals

Hanseatic League

Heckling

Hemp Seals

Hemp & Flax Port Inspectors

Helmsley Seals

Hills and Whishaw

HMS Victory

Hull import trade

IDENTIFICATION SERVICE

Inspector designation initials

Jews in the Flax Trade

John Marshall

John Sullivan Article on Fife

Ю T - State Customs Tax

Kildin - White Sea - fur trade

Kinghorn Mills

Klaipedo

Konigsberg

Kronstadt - the sea port of St Petersburg

Lancaster Maritime Museum

Lancashire

Leubeck Harbour

Libau - Leipaja

Ligatures

Little Patrick Mill

Liverpool Docks, Castle, Mersey

Lost Village of West End

Low Mill

Lubeck - Capitol of Hanseatic League

Magnifying Linen Thread Counter

Matthew Murray

McManus Galleries Dundee - Scotland

Meaning of Abbreviations

Memel

Mold, North Wales

Montrose - Scotland

Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition

Moscow Tax Custom Seals

Napoleonic War

Narva

Novgored, Novgorod

NP Port Narva Conundrum

NP, SP, SPB, CПБ, WK, WU

Numbers Only Seals

Owner list

Paired Inspectors

Paisley with Johnstone mills

Pavlov Star Seals

Pennybridge

Pernau

PiLPD Seals

Piracy and Warfare

Portuguese Gold Coin Weight

Post Office Seals

Poulton-le-Fylde

Preston

Pskove

Quayside in Medieval Times

Railway Seals

Regten en Accynsen

Rein (Rhine) Hemp R:H

Retting

Reval, Revel, Tallinn

Riga - Black Balsam

Riga - City Keys

Riga - German influence

Russian State Arms Seals

Ruthin, North Wales

Rybinsk

Rybnaya Sloboda

Scarborough

Scutching

Ships - Galeas & Galliots

Sklad - depot warehouse

Sort 1 2 3

Spindle Whorls

Spinning Wheels

St George's Quay, Lancaster

St Petersburg City Arms

St Petersburg Seals

Star of David

Star Seals

Stars, Crescents and *T*'s

*T*'s, Stars and Crescents

Tallinn, Reval

Tax Custom Seals

Three Pound Twelve Coin Weight

Tilsit

Topsham Hemp Trade

Torpoint

Tow

Trade Tokens

Ulverston

Velikoselskoi

Ventspils (Windau)

Village Seals

Visby

Vologda

V.LED owner

Wales

War Department Seals

Wass Seals

Weather Forecast

West End Mills

West House Mill

Wheel Cranes

Whinny Hill Seal field

Windau (Ventspils)

Wirballen, Lithuania

York Street Mills - Belfast

Zyrardow, Poland

 

Hands Of Friendship Seals

Found in fields where the seals were  predominately dated 1829 and 1831.

The only known seals of this type

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

1812 Hands of Friendship

One Penny Copper Token

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Rare Pavlov Star Seals

Many Jews in St Petersburg were

involved in the Flax trade .

The six-pointed star, the Magen

David, the Shield of David, the

Star of David, is also known as

a hexagram, or Solomon's Seal.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Mistakes by Seal Makers

SS32H ... should be SS12H

 .. they only did 6H, 9H or

 12H flax heads to the bale.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

The first Archangel Seal

found at Folly Gill Mill

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

An antique brass thread counter

used by a travelling cloth buyer to

measure the quality of the linen.

It was found in the seal fields.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Three Pound Twelve brass coin

weight found near the Old Gate

Inn Smithy at West End Mills

which was used to check the

weight of the gold Portuguese

8 Escudos coins brought over to

pay for Linen Goods  c.1800.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

 Riga Balsam = РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -

 

КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ

STATE RAILWAY M.P.S. TELEGRAPH

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Russian Railways

1877 Customs Guards, Porters

Railway Guards, Rural Police,

Interior of Railway Carriage.

 

click on the thumbnail

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Website design & photos by Ged Dodd

Director - The PeaceHavens Project.
and powered with free uploading from 

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

The size of flax bales.

Whereas bag seals were used on

small bags for sugar and tea etc.

the bale seal was used on bundles

upwards of half a ton each hauled

on a wagon by teams of 4 horses.

POOD was used as a weight for bales,

 about 16.4 kilograms 36.1 pounds,

 63 poods making an English ton.

  60 poods of flax & 40 poods of flax codilla are a "Last" in St Petersburg.

          - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

A one pood sports weight kettlebell of 16kg

 

  Pood is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt. Plural: pudi or pudy.  Since 1899 It is approximately 16.38 kilograms and was used in Russia, Belarus, & Ukraine.

 Pood was first mentioned in a number of 12th-century documents. Unlike funt, which came at least in the 14th century from Middle High German: phunt, Old East Slavic: пудъ pud is a much older borrowing from Old Norse: pund which in turn came through the mediation of Old English: pund from Latin: pondus "weight".

 

- - - - - - - - - - - -

The English Stone weight is 14 lbs.

The stone weight in other countries varies

City

Country

Term

lbs

Dresden

Germany

Stein

22

20

Mecklenburg
Berlin

Germany

schwerer Stein

22

leichter Stein

11

Danzig
Königsberg

Poland

Russia

großer Stein

33

kleiner Stein

22

Bremen

Germany

Stein Flachs

20

Stein Wolle, Federn

10

Oldenburg

Germany

Stein Flachs

20

Stein Wolle, Federn

10

Kraków

Poland

Stein

25

Osnabrück

Germany

Stein

10

Amsterdam

Netherlands

Steen

8

6

Karlsruhe

Germany

Stein

10

Leipzig,
Weimar

Germany

Stein

22

Breslau

Poland

Stein

24

Antwerpen

Belgium

Steen

8

Prague

Czech Rep

Stein

20

Solothurn

Switzerland

Stein

10

Stockholm

Sweden

Sten

32

Warsaw

Poland

Kamień

25

Vilnius

Lithuania

Kamieni

40

Vienna Austria Stein 20

 

Crossed Key and Sword Seals

German often mistaken for Riga.

Crossed Key & Sword /No 3  /// blank

found at Carnforth, Lancashire.

 

Crossed Key & Sword /No 3  /// blank

found near Coimbra, Portugal.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - -  

 DICTIONARY

 

   A. Archangel  .. also APX, APXA, APXAH, APXAHГ, APXAHГEЛ. ( APXAHAГЛЬCK.  Archangel'sk )

   ‘A11’ in a square on Russian Tax seal stand for Alexander II (1855-1881),

   Alexandrosky Works .. a government owned linen mill near to St Petersburg

   AO = Акционерное Общество  = Joint Stock Company, on rare occasions this replaces the

     inspector designation of ЛД  or ПД. The company inspector was called Cherntsov
   A.П (A.P).  Archangel Port

 

   БAЛЬЗAMЪ. BALSAM

   BALE SIZE see terms for flax.

   BARR FLAX see terms for flax.

   BARREN HEMP was Fimble Summer hemp.
   Б (B). Brack is quality control. БP, БPA, БPAKЬ. (Baraak)

   БР. = БPAKOBЩ = ВRACKED (Inspected)

   БР. = ВРАТЬЯ = brothers eg. БР.БУБНОВЫ  the brothers Bubnovy
   brakovshchik bracker, Quality Control Officer,   brakovshchiki brackers, Quality Control Officers

   BLACK FLAX see terms for flax.

   BLAE FLAX [blue flax] see terms for flax.

   BRAKEN FLAX see terms for flax.

   BRACK HEMP see terms for hemp

   Baron Steiglitz Works .. large spinning and weaving factory near Narva specialising in sail cloth.

   BRAKOVSHCHIK = a bracker (person).
   БPAKOBЩ, БPAKOBЩИK (BRAKOVSHIK) Passed Inspection

   BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ (VELIKOSELSKOI) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means Veliko Village region ..

   BИЛEГOДCKOИ (VILEGODSKOI) flax from Vilegda river region.

   ВОД.ЗАВОДЪ Vodka distillary

   ВОЛЬНЫЕ СЛУЖИТЕЛИ Bol'nye Cluzhiteli which is floor attendants

   BOЛOГДA see (VOLOGDA) city and region

   BEPЖБOЛ = VERZHBOL.(OV) = VIRBALIS in Lithuania also called Wirballen

   BIT is the part of the key which goes into the lock.

   BOW is the part outside the lock that you turn.   see Riga page

   BUNDLE .. see terms for flax.

 

   CAHKTПETEPБПOT (SANKT PETERB POT) St Petersburg Port
   CAHKTПETEPБУ:ПOP (SANKTPETERBU POR) St Petersburg Port

   CARL HEMP was harvested at the onset of winter. See terms for hemp.

   CARELIA was superior grade to Novogorod flax bales.

   ЧИСТА (chista = clean) from 173 3 R hemp seal

   CKЛAД (SKLAD) is a Transport Depot or Warehouse

   CKЛAДCKOI  ПРІЕМ (SKLADSKOI PRIEM) is a Warehouse Receipt

   СЫНОВЬЯ (SYNOV'Ya) = sons of

   CЫPЦOBAЯ (SYRTSOVAYA) natural
   CODILLA (Cedilla) (Paklya) ПAKЛЯ is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching

   or the Heckled Tow is used for Tow yarn, twine or stuffing. See terms for Hemp

   CПБ. SPB .. St Petersburg ... also used as an indicator of flax after 1829. 

   CПБ.TA.OTP.TOB = CПБ.TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP  St Petersburg Customs Department Goods  

   Customs Officers are Tsolnery, Chief Customs Officers are Obertsolnery

   C. CEЛO = Selo = Village ..  ДЕРЕВНЯ (Derevhya) means village, countryside, hamlet, settlement.

   C Sort

   С.ЗАП = СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНЫЙ  = North Western / Ж.Д. = Railroad

   COPT, COPTЬ (сортировать) SORT, grade, select, screen

   CT (ST) Railway Station (СТАНЦИЯ) Stantsiya

   CTЛ.3 a flax grading unique in 1831 http://www.peacehavens.co.uk/BSBACHAROV.htm

   СУКОННАЯ ФАБРИКА (SUKONNAYA FABRIKA) is a CLOTHING FACTORY.

   ЧESKA (CHESKA) Low grade heckled flax,  heckled flax *Ч* (hesanyj len = ‘long line’ i.e. long flax)

 

  CROSSED KEY AND SWORD are German seals not Riga.

    CUSTOMS OFFICERS are TSOLNERY,

  CHIEF CUSTOMS OFFICERS are OBERTSOLNERY

    Д (D) DESYATNIK was a Quality Control Officer selected by ten  brackers

  themselves who worked under his (or her) direct supervision to carry out the

  inspection and certify on their behalf  the bundle to which the seal was

  fastened.  Variations found on seals are ДЕС, ДЕСЯCK, ДЕСЯТ,  ДЕСЯТC,

  ДЕСЯТCK, ДЕСЯТH, ДЕСЯТHИKЪ,  ДЕСЯТЬHИKЪ, with the

   Ц  suggesting in these abbreviations  ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO and   ДЕСЯЦKOИ  are the higher ranking

   Tsolnery or Customs Officers.

DESATSKIE in the Russian Empire were elected officials from peasants to perform police and various public functions, to observed the purity in the villages, for the purity of water

 in the river, for the  adoption of fire-fighting measures, for the order during the bidding,

 bazaars, for the sale of good-quality  products, for the production of trade with the DESYATNIK  (above)  they reported to the police about the garbage, children, the crazy,

 the dead bodies found, the appearance of thieves, bandits and any emergency incident.

 

   ДВОЙНОЙ РИЖСКИЙ БАЛЬЗАМ is Double Riga Balsam

   ДЕРЕВНЯ (Derevhya) in Russian means village, countryside, hamlet, settlement. Selo is village.

   ДВИГАТЕЛЬ = DVIGATEL the Carriage Building Works in Talinn

    DANTZIG FLAX [Gdańsk  During the 16th century  flax was imported to this country from Dantzig, often as

   a back cargo for the merchants exporting British Lead through Hull into the Baltic. See terms for flax.
   ДОМ is house

   DUTCH FLAX was probably a term applied to any flax exported through the Dutch ports. See terms for flax.

     Dosmotrsshchiki are various inspectors

   Д = D = Inspector

   Д8 = D8 is on 2 flaz seals for Sysoev but the other 3 are ДЗ = DZ
   ДA = DA is on flax and hemp seals

   ДB = DV (Vologda region). both flax and hemp seals (Insp.Shelepin)
   ДC = DS is on flax and hemp seals
   ДE = DE is on flax seals (to date)
   ДФ = DF is on flax and hemp seals

   ДӨ = DTh a strange letter or symbol we have yet to decipher
   ДГ = DG is on flax seals (to date)
   ДI = DI is on flax seals (to date)
   ДИ = DI is on flax and hemp seals

   ДII = DII is on hemp seals  (to date - possibly DP)
   ДIK = DIK is on hemp seals (to date)
   ДIB = DIV is from John Sullivan's book 
   ДK = DK is on flax seals (to date)
   ДЛ = DL  flax inspector seals ONLY.
   ДЛI = DLI  flax inspector seals ONLY.
   ДM = DM is on flax seals and hemp seals.

   ДN = DN is on flax seals

   ДT = DT is on flax seals. (to date)
   ДЯ = DYa is on flax seals. (to date)
   ДЗ = DZ is on flax seals and hemp seals.

 -    ------also

   ЛД = LD is L'nyanoy Dosmotr (Flax Inspection ONLY)

   ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

   ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

   ПД = PD is Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection ONLY)

   ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr) but only when in the inspector

   definition shown below ПiЛПД.

   ПiЛПД = PiLPD= Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection seal (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr)

   see the Hemp page.

   ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

   ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

   ЦЦC = TsTsS ( Tsolnery are customs officers)

 

   EGYPT FLAX, HEMP and TOW see terms for flax

   ENGLISH FLAX [english flex; english fflax] see terms for flax.

   ESSINGS FLAX see terms for flax.

  

   FACTOR acts for another, notably a mercantile and colonial agent.

   FADGE FLAX see terms for flax.

   FIMBLE was Summer flax. See the terms for flax.

   FLANDERS FLAX see terms for flax.

   FLEMISH flax is the best for LACE making. See terms for flax.

   ФАБРИКА (FABRIKA) is a Factory

 

    ГЕРБ (GERB) is the GERBOBOE treasury, part of the management of NEOKLADNYH fees.

    GIGGING is to dry the Hemp or Flax over a Fire, made in a hole of the ground, which is called the Gigg or

    Gigg hole; and so laid upon a Flake, after the manner of a Kilne.

    GRADE, CLASS. P (R),  PУ,  PУKA, PУ, (RUKA)

    GREEN FLAX see terms for flax.

    GREEN HEMP [green housewife's hemp; green drest hemp] see terms for hemp.

    GREEN LINEN CLOTH; Linen cloth from Scotland was labelled Green .. see terms for flax.

    ГЛАВНАЯ  (GLAVNAYA) Main

    Г.У.Н.С - G.U.N.S Главное Управление Неокладных Сборов. (Main Management of Neokladnyh fees.)

      

    HECKLED TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling

        used for Tow yarns.  (to heckle’ was to dress flax by separating it into its finest fibres)

    H (HEAD) A unit of measure for flax consisting of '12 'stricks' (strikes) each of 'about ten handfuls' tied up

    into a bunch. According to Randle Holme, twelve of these bunches would make a Kirtle, hence Kirtle flax

    however, the Dictionary Archive suggest that the number of stricks in a head was not fixed, It was also not

    used exclusively with flax. Hemp was also measured by the head, but possibly in smaller units, since '3 head'

    and '2 head' hemp have been noted. It seems 'Head' may also have been used as a unit of measure for Silk,

   H = Hell, Heel, LIGHT, YELLOW

   H = Heide, TOW when used as the base letter  . 

   HD = Hoffdreibandt, HOFF'S THREEBAND. (English) from Livonia.

   HFPK (Hoff) Yellow Fine Picked Crown flax. 

   H (N) .. post number the inspector worked from (or possibly the registration number

   stamped of the seal crimping pliers)

   ‘ H1’ in a square on Russian Tax seal stand for Nicholas I (1825-1855)  and Alexander II (1855-1881),

   H.K.B.T. ГОСТОРГ is НАРОДНЫЙ КОМИССАРИАТ ВНЕШНЕЙ ТОРГОВЛИ

      ie “People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade Gostorg”.

   HИЖHOCУXOHCKOИ (NIVILEGODSKOI) Lower Sukhona flax

 

   IZBORNIKS (Russian: изборник) elected officials.

   I.I. the notation used by Hills and Wishaw instead of the normal NP/SPB

   I. I and I. I.C perhaps distortions of П.П and П.П.C port hemp inspectors

   

 

   K has many meanings .. Krown, Kontrol, Kronstadt, Konigsberg

   КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ = State Railway

   KIRTLE was 12 bunches of '12 'stricks' (strikes) each of 'about ten handfuls' tied up into a bunch.

   КОНОЛИН...  KONOPIL ...  KONOPLYA   is hemp

   KONTPOЛ (KONTROL) Control .. check point

   КОНТОРА (KONTORA) Office for the Hanseatic League iv various cities. The London kontor was

   established in 1320, and stood west of London Bridge near Upper Thames Street, the site now occupied

   by Cannon Street station. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weigh

   house, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of trading activity on the premises.

   K = KPOHЪ (Kron) Crown is high quality long strong filament flax. Better grades are PK, FPK & ZK.

   K.X.C.Ж.Д = K.Kh.S.Zh.D is the  Kursk-Kharkov-Sebastopol-Railway-Company

   KUDEL (TOW)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ,  is the coarse broken part of  hemp

   after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

   KУДEЛЬH KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

   see Codilla

 

   LAST used as a weight for bales in St Petersburg,  60 poods of flax and 40 poods of flax codilla

    make a "last" in St Petersburg. (63 poods make an English ton)

   LB is a unit of a Hundred

   LETTOW FLAX see terms for flax.

   LEWKES HEMP see terms for hemp.

   ЛEH, ЛЬНЯ  flax

   ЛЬНЯНОЕ. (L'NYANOY)   Flax, Linen

   ЛД = LD is the designation for flax inspector (L'nyanoy Dosmotr)

   ЛЬНЯНОЕ БPAKOBЩ is flax that has passed inspection with these abbreviations  ЛHAБPA,

   ЛHAЯH, ЛHA БPAK,  ЛHЯ БP, ЛHЯH:БPAK

   ЛИЧ (LICH) is personal or pertaining to a particular person..

   ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

   ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

   LOOSE FLAX see terms for flax.

   MANINGBURG FLAX (likely Marienburg flax) see terms for flax.

   МЕЛЬНИЦА (Mel'jnitsa) .. Mill

   Moscow State Customs Tax seals see Tax Custom Seals

   МОВКОВ(СКАЯ)   ПОЛИТЕХ(НИЧЕСКИЙ)  ВЫСТ(АВКА) the Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition (1872)

   M.K.B.Ж.Д = M.K.V.Zh.D  Moscow-Kiev-Vorenezh-Railway-Company

   M.И.OДHOДШEBCKAЯ  C  CЫHOBЬЯMИ  (M.I.ODNOUSHEVSKAYA  S  SYNOV'YAMI) ...

   Arms of Russian State

   MUITA (MUITINES) is Riga Customs Tax Authority in Latvia

   MUSCOVY FLAX, LINEN, YARN see terms for flax.

   МУКОМЛЬНАЯ (MUKOML'NAYA) Flour

 

   N (H) post number the inspector worked from (or possibly the registration number stamped

   on the seal crimping pliers) 

   N. Norwegian

   NARVA FLAX. Narva is a port in Livonia bordering the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. see terms for Flax.

   NIVILEGODSKOI Lower Sukhona flax

   NIZHNOSUKONSKOI  (HИЖHOCУXOHCKOИ) Sukhona River Region flax.

   NOVOGOROD was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

    NEOKLADNYH FEES. The main management of non-okladnyh fees and barrel sale of pitej (Tax on

   Alcohol)1896-1919. The Division of Non-okladnyh fees had been running excise fees with  grape, fruit, berry

   and raison wines, with tobacco, sugar, crews yeast, lighting oil oils and lighting matches, cigarette liners and

   sliced tissue paper (from1909), Tea (from 1916), and also in charge of art fees: Armorial works, passports

   (before their cancellation in 1897, other than duty from foreign ports) and other non-payment fees and duties;

    Office of the former excise duty with salt and drinking arrears. The Division was located in the department

    of the Gerbovoe treasury, which carried out the reception, storage.

 

   Obertsolnery are Chief Customs officers

    Oblast is an administrative division of a City or region .

   O = OTБOPHЬII (OTBORNI) is Select grade

   OTPACЛЬ (Department) TOBAP (Goods)

   OUTSHOT see terms for flax and hemp.

   OUTSORE see terms for hemp

 

   P. Poland

   P (R),  PУ,  PУKA,  (RUKA) grade, class, pick

   (2 PУКИ (2 ruki) (= 2nd sort / 9-head)

   PASS HEMP was 3rd quality Russian hemp, inferior to Outshot hemp, above Codilla. See terms for hemp.

   PATER NOSTER FLAX see terms for flax.

   PEN.  ПEH.  Hemp

   PEN'KA.  ПEHЬKA  Hemp

   PETERBOROUGH FLAX see terms for flax.

   PETERBOROUGH HEMP see terms for hemp.

   РИГА ГОРОД (RIGA GOROD) RIGA CITY

   РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ = Riga Balsam

   РИЖСКІЙ ЧЕРНЫЙ ТРАВНЫЙ БАЛЗАМЪ Riga Black Herb Balsam

   РИГСК (Riga)  TAMOЖHЯ (Customs) OTPACЛЬ (Department) TOBAP (Goods)

   PIATINAS were administrative provinces.

   POGOSTI were rural fiscal and administrative districts.

   POLONIA is a name for Poland.

   POSADNIKS participated in the diplomatic talks and stimulated better trade conditions.

   PORT.  П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA

   POOD used as a weight for bales, equivalent to about 16.4 kilograms (36.1 pounds) (63 poods make

   an English ton) 60 poods of flax and 40 poods of flax codilla make a "last" in St Petersburg.

    (Pood, is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt. Plural: pudi or pudy. Since 1899 It is approximately set to 16.38

     kilograms. It was used in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. Pood was first mentioned in a number of 12th-

     century documents.  Unlike funt, which came at least in the 14th century from Middle High German: phunt,

     Old East Slavic: пудъ pud is a much older borrowing from Old Norse: pund which in turn came through

     the mediation of Old English: pund from Latin: pondus "weight".)

   ПРИГОТ.(ОВЛЕН) Prepared .. Riga Balsam

   ПРИГОТОВИЛЪ А.ВОЛЬФШМИТЪ РИГА  Prepared by A.Wolfsmith of Riga

   PSKOVE was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

   ПAKЛЯ.  PAKLYA (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling

   used  for Tow yarn, twine or stuffing.

   ПAKЛЯ ЧECKA heckled codilla low grade flax for tow.

   ПД = PD is the inspector designation for hemp (Penkovy Dosmotr).

   ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr) in special circumstances ..

   ПiЛПД = PiLPD= Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection seal (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr) 

   see PiLPD page.

   ПЛОМБА СВИНЦОВАЯ = Lead Seal

   ПЛОМБА ОТ ВАЛЬЗАМА = Balsam Seal

   ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

   ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

   ПEH1. PEN1 first grade hemp

   ПEH2. PEN2 second grade hemp

   ПEH3. PEN3 third grade hemp

   ПEHЬKA. PEN'KA  Hemp

   П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA.  Port {Dockside}

   ПИК и ВОД.ЗАВОДЪ Liquer & Vodka distillary

   ПРІЕМ (PRIEM) is a Receipt (for a warehouse)

   PIГA. Riga

   PIЖOПOPTA. Riga Port

   PИЖCKИИ ЧEPHЫИ БAЛЬЗAMЪ. Riga Black Balsam

   PУКИ = RUKI = grade.

   ПУКН = PUKN = PICK a term which replaced sort and grade also called Pink .

 

   QUARTER FLAX see terms of flax.

   QUEENSBOROUGH is an old name of the German town, Konigsburg

   QUINSBOROUGH is KONIGSBERG

 

   REFUSE FLAX (hards) see terms for flax;

   RHINE also found as 'rine', the term comes from the German 'reinhanf', meaning literally 'clean HEMP'.

   The term was applied to a fine quality of Russian hemp imported through the Baltic port of Riga; often

   called (though not in the Dictionary Archive) Riga rhine. In one document it was valued at 27s the Cwt

   as compared with PASS HEMP or RIGA HEMP at 22s [Inventories (1671)].
   RIGA (RIGAER) =
 PИГA,  PИЖ,  РИЖСК, РИЖСКА, РИЖСКИЙ

   Riga Balsam = РИЖСКИЙ  БАЛЬСАМЪ

   RIGAS MUITA is Riga Customs Tax Authority in Latvian

   Riga Flax Grades  K, PK, FPK, SPK, HK, HPK, HSPK  .. see the table ..

   RIGISCO FLAX see terms for flax.

   RING FLAX see terms for flax.

   ROUGH FLAX and HEMP see terms for flax.

   SCUTCHING TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is HeckledTow. Broken fibres from Scutching or Heckling

   used for Tow yarns.

   SHORT FLAX see terms for flax.

   SHORTS is often found in the form of 'short hemp', see terms for flax.

   SKLAD (CKЛAД) is a Transport Depot or Warehouse and ( ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМЬ is a Trading House)

   SOTSKIYS (Russian: сотский,) an official who represented a hundred households.

   SNAIL is a poor quality of Flax, similar to or identical with Snouting and Tow.

   SNOUTING is a poor quality of Flax, similar to or identical with Snail and Tow.

   SPRUCE  FLAX and HEMP comes from the region now called Prussia. See terms for flax.

   STONE The stone or stone weight  is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds.

   Before the early 19th century, as in England, the stone varied both with locality and with commodity. For

   example, the Belfast stone for measuring flax equalled 16.75 avoirdupois pounds. The most usual value was

   14 pounds. Among the oddities related to the use of the stone was the practice in County Clare of a stone of

   potatoes being 16 lb in the summer and 18 lb in the winter. See the terms for Hemp.
   STRING FLAX see terms for flax.

   SUKONNAYA FABRIKA (СУКОННАЯ ФАБРИКА) is a Clothing Factory.

   SPB. CПБ St Petersburg .. also used to designate hemp seals before 1829 & flax after 1829 when

   on the reverse of seals.

   ST PETERSBURG (CAHKTПETEPБ) SANKT PETERB

   STATE RAILWAY =  КАЗЕННЫЯ  ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЯ  ДОРОГИ  Railway

   SPOLYYCHEGODSH a region on the Vilegda river in Vologda Province which produced high quality flax.

   STEEL HEMP is the female plants of hemp. See terms for hemp

   SUFFOLK HEMP see terms for hemp.

   SUKHONA is a river in the Vologda Province from where the Ustyug region produced high quality flax.

   SYRTSOVAYA (CЫPЦOBAЯ) natural

 

    TERMS FOR FLAX AND HEMP

 

   T = TAMOЖHЯ, ТАМОЖЕННАЯ (TAMOZEHNNAYA) = CUSTOMS TAX

   TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP = Customs Department Goods

   TAYPOГ. = TAUROGEN = now TAURAGE in Lithuania 

   T.D = Т.Д = ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМЬ = TRADING HOUSE and a (SKLAD (CKЛAД) is a  Transport Depot or

    Warehouse.

   TEAR OF FLAX  is 'fine flax, or dressed flax, having all the course Hards taken from it' See terms for flax.

   TEAR OF HEMP denotes fine, delicate, of the best quality; see terms for hemp.

   ТЕЛЕГРАФЪ = TELEGRAPH

   TOBAP (Goods)

   TOPPED HEMP see terms for hemp.
   TOPPINGS see terms for hemp.

   TOW (KUDEL)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ, KУДEЛЬH is the coarse broken part of

    hemp or flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes. See terms for flax.

   TOW YARN is the short broken fiber of flax, hemp, or jute used for yarn, twine, or stuffing.

   ТРАВНЫЙ БАЛЗАМЪ   Herb Balsam

   ТРАВНАГО БАЛЬЗАМА Herb Balsam

 
  
Ц  Tsolnery are CUSTOMS OFFICERS which would suggest

   ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO, ДЕСЯЦKOИ  are high ranking inspectors.

 

   UNDRESSED FLAX and HEMP .. see terms for flax.

   USTYUG is a region on the Sukhona river in the Vologda Province

   which produced high quality flax.

 

   V = Voblast an administrative division of a State. (Oblast is an administrative division of a City).

   V.ARCHANGELESK = B.АРХАНГЕЛѢСКЬ an administrative division incorporating Archangel City..

   VELIKOSELSKOI (BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means Veliko Village region.

  VERZHBOL.(OV) = BEPЖБOЛ = VIRBALIS in Lithuania also called Wirballen

  VIATKA (VYATKA) an area of long fibre flax and Tow for Archangel.

   VILEGODSKOI (BИЛEГOДCKOИ) high quality flax from the Vilegda river "Spolvychegodsh"

     region in Vologda Province..

   VOLOGDA (BOЛOГДA) a city and region found on the seals of   HILLS & WHISHAW COMPANY.

 

  WASNIKOW was superior grade to Novogorod flax bales.

  WATERED was applied to to flax and hemp that had been rotted or retted. See terms for flax.

  WELL HEMP see terms for flax.

  WHITE HEMP and FLAX see terms for flax.

  WHITE RUSSIA was a source of best quality flax for Riga

  WILNA FLAX.. a fine flax originally exported via Memel and Konigsberg until the arrival

   of the Edlykuhu railway whereupon it was transported directly to Konigsberg.

  WINTER HEMP was harvested at the onset of winter. See terms for hemp.

 

   YAROSLAVL PROVINCE. Most of the flax produced here was kept in Russia for Yaroslavl Linen. 

   Ю.B.Ж.Д = Yu.V.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

   Юго-Восточная железная дорога  = South Eastern Railroad. 

   Ю.З.Ж.Д = Yu.Z.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

   Юго-Западный железная дорога  =  South Western Railroad.

     ЗАВ. = ЗАВОД = Plant, factory, distillery. Riga Balsam.

   Ж.Д = Zh.D = ЖEЛEЗHAЯ ДOPOГA = Railroad Company

 

   1-COPTЬ. 1st Sort, Firsts, clean

   2-COPTЬ. 2nd Sort, Seconds, short (Outshot)

  3-COPTЬ. 3rd Sort, Thirds, half clean

 

 

      From the late 18th Century Riga had a method of grading flax for sale on the world

        markets which, unfortunately, was committed to paper, and not put on the seals.

   Flax Grade Letters (1863) Belfast Linen Trade Circular and others.

   The letter on the right of the group was called the Base Letter to which other letters were

    added at the front to further describe the flax. Riga gradeswere also used at other ports.

   

  3 = Threeband

  4 = Fourband is superior to 3-band , both exported to England from Libau & Memel.

  A = cleaned.

  B = Badstuben, a type of Threeband (Drujaner & Coupland flax)

  BG = Badstuben Geschnitten, Badstuben Cut (as above)

  CM = Crown Marienburg.

  CR = Courland Rakitzer was not as good as the other Rakitzers

  CPH = Crukken Pass Hemp .. preferred types are from Russia and Poland

  D = Driebandt, Threeband. The City Arms used alone for Threeband flax in Memel.

  DC = Druana Crown from Tilsit

  DD = Drujaner Dreibandt, Drujaner Threeband .

  DR = Druana (Drujaner) Rakitzer, High Quality White Russian .

  DRD = Drujaner Risten Dreibandt, Drujaner Bundle Threeband was fine in fibre, moderately long,

  clean, soft, white, silver coloured and fit for spinning the finest yarns. .

  DW = Dreibandt Wrack, Threeband Brack

  F = Fein, Fine

  FHD = Fein Hoff's Driebandt, Fine Hoff's Threeband;

  FPHD = Fein Puik Hoff's Driebandt, Fine Picked Threeband. (Portuguese)

  FPK = Fein Puik Kron, Fine Picked Crown.

  FPSD = Fein Puik Slansky Driebandt, Fine Picked Slanitz Threeband, Fine Pink Slansky threeband.

  FWPCM = Fine White Picked Crown Marienburg flax from the port of Koenigsberg. 

  G. German

  G = BEST from Pernau

  G = Geschnitten, cut rejected crown.

  G = Grau, Grey.

  GRD = Geschnitten Risten Dreibandt, cut bundle threeband.

  GW = Giligen Brack, Low Grade Threeband.

  H = Hell, Heel, Light, Yellow.

  H = Heide, TOW when used as the base letter  . 

  HD = Hoffdreibandt, Hoff's Threeband (English) from Livonia, Light Driebandt.

  HFPK (Hoff) Yellow Fine Picked Crown flax. 

  K = KPOHЪ (Kron) Crown is high quality long strong filament flax. Better grades are PK, FPK & ZK.

  KPC = Konigsberg Podolia Crown from Tilsit

  KRK = Kourland Rakitzer Kron, High Quality Courland Rakitzer Crown.

  LC = Lithuanian Czukken hemp is as Rein Hemp but less oily and soft.

  LD = Leiden Dreibandt, Lieden Threeband.

  LD = Lithuanian Dreibandt, Lithuanian Threeband.

  LD = Livonian Dreibandt, Lindlandischan Threeband from Livonia

  LH = Livonian Hoffdreibandt, Livonian Threeband Hoff from Livonia

  LOD = Livonian Ordinary Driebandt, Threeband, or Low Ordinary Driebandt.

  LR = Lithuanian Rakitzer, High Quality Lithuanian flax but not as good as the other Rakitzers

  LRK = Lithuanian Rakitzer Kron, High Quality Lithuanian Krown flax

  LS = Lithuanian Slanitz .. dew retted via Riga .. also called Wellish Slanitz or Wiasma Slanitz

  M = Marienburg or Marienburg Clean, High grade Crown, source of best quality Livonian flax for Riga.

  MБ possibly Marienburg Badstube, a second grade flax from Riga .

  MG = Marienburg Geschnitten, Second Quality Marienburg.

  MR = Marienburg Rakitzer = equivalent quality to Rein Hemp, Rhine Hemp

  MRC =  MC = Mohilow Russian Czukken hemp

  MRD = Marienburg Risten Dreibandt, Marienburg Bundle Threeband.

  NB = Notabene is another name for Paternoster

  NC = Newstadt Crown from Memel

  NP = Paternoster is also Badstuben Cut (Sent to Portugal)

  O = OTБOPHЬII (OTBORNI) is Select grade

  OC = Oberland Crown from Tilsit

  OD = Ordinary Driebandt, Threeband.

  OH = OUTSHOT is short second sort hemp. 

  P = PICKED,  Puik (Pink)

  PD = Puik Driebandt, Picked Threeband,   pink threeband.

  PH = Puik Heide, PIicked Tow flax

  PH = PASS HEMP .. usually from Lithuania or Samogitia.

  PHD = Puik Hoff's Driebandt, Picked Threeband. (French) Pink Threeband from Livonia.

  PK. Pass Krown (flax) is very short but clean and  free of woody particles.

  PK = Picked Krown (Pink Kron) flax.

  PLD = Puik Livonian Dreibandt, Picked Linlandischan Threeband, Pink Livonian Dreibandt from Livonia.

  PSD = Puik Slansky Driebandt, Picked Slanitz Threeband,  pink Slansky threeband

  PW = Puik Wrack, Picked Brack, Pink Wrack flax

  PZ (ПЗ) is possibly ПEH ЗAБPAKЪ lowest quality hemp codilla.

  R (chista = clean) from Hemp seal of 1733

  R = Risten, bundles

  R = Rakitzer

  R = Risten, Bundle.

  RC = MRC = Mohilow Russian Czukken hemp

  RG = Rakitzer Geschnitten, lowest grade of Crown Cut Rakitzer.

  RH (MR) Rein (Rhine) Hemp is the longest best hemp, oily, strong and free of

    Codilla and woody particles .. sometimes listed as MR = Marienburg Rakitzer

  RSC = Russian Slanitz Crown from Memel

  S. Select is soft, silk-like flax in 3 grades

  S. Spinning grade

  S. Superior grade

  S = Sanft, Sweet, Superior

  SD = Slansky Driebandt, Slanitz Threeband.

  SFHD = Superior Fine Hoff's Threeband.

  S G = cut

  SH = Slansky Heide, Slanitz Tow

  SPK = Superior Picked Krown

  TR = Thiesenhausen Rakitzer, a type of High Quality Lithuanian flax grown on the estate of Count

  Thiesenhausen was of long harle, strong, even, clean, white and soft.

  W = Weiss, White .. is made up in bundles of 12, 9 and 6 heads called bobbins.

  W = Wrack (Brack) Bracked flax

  WC = Wilna Crown from Memel

  WFPHD White Fine Picked, Yellow (Hoff) Threeband flax

  WFPK White Fine Picked Crown flax

  WK = Wilma Krown on reverse of seals replacing NP

  WS = Wellish Slanitz or Wiasma Slanitz

  XHDX = Extra Hoff's Threeband flax

  XRX = Extra Rakitzer flax

  ZABR, ZABRACK, (ЗAБP, ЗAБPAKЪ) lowest quality hemp

  ZK = Zinc Crown (Zins Kron) flax

 

 

The Absence of Flax and Hemp

Seals from the Baltic State Ports

around the end of the 1840's.

 

Merchants lost faith in the grading of

flax and hemp from the Baltic States

 and arranged a new system in 1829 ..

 seemingly solving the problem but

this too finally collapsed around 1850

with no further seals to be found.

However faith in Archangel grading

was high and the port seals continued

well until the end of the century.

So unfortunately of the 20,000 tons

of flax and hemp imported into the

port of Arbroath in 1881-82 from

the Baltic States none had seals ..

but we did find 2 from Archangel,

with more out there to be found.

Flax, Hemp & Tow Imports

for Arbroath 1881 - 1882

(From Arbroath Harbour: Imports and Exports 1881-83)

imported from

type

tons

seals

Riga

Riga

Riga

flax

hemp

tow

13,505

   369

   111

none

Pernau

Pernau

flax

tow

 1,815

   131

none

St Petersburg

St Petersburg

flax

tow

 1,953

    97

none

Cronstadt

flax

   436

none

Reval

Reval

flax

tow

   860

   226

none

Memel

Memel

flax

tow

   818

     1

none

Narva

Narva

flax

tow

   200

     1

none

Konigsberg

Konigsberg

flax

hemp

   157

    27

none

Libau

flax

   194

none

Archangel

Archangel

flax

tow

   604

   369

2

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Modern Cyrillic Alphabet

 

A=A,  B=V,  Б=B,   C=S,  Ч=CH, Д=D,   E=E,  И=I,  Ё=O,  Э=EH,  Ф=F,  Г=G,  H=N, K=K,  Л=L,  M=M,  O=O, Ө=F,Th.

  П=P, Р=R,  Ж=ZH,  Ш=SH,  Щ=SHCH,  T=T,  Ц=TS,  У=U,  Ю=YU,  Я= YA, ѣ=YE,  Х= KH,  З = Z,  Ы = Y,  Ь Ъ=' "

see Cyrillic Alphabet for more details

The History of the Cyrillic Alphabet

Learn_RussianThe Cyrillic alphabet owes its name to the 9th century Byzantine missionary St. Cyril, who, along with his brother, Methodius, created the first Slavic alphabet—the Glagolithic—in order to translate Greek religious text to Slavic. It is on the basis of this alphabet that the Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10th century AD by the followers of the brothers, who were beatified as saints.  Based on the Greek ceremonial script, the original Cyrillic alphabet included the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet and 19 letters for sounds specific to the Slavic language. The Cyrillic alphabet has gone through many reforms in both Russia and other countries. In Russia, the first reformer of the Cyrillic was printer and publisher Ivan Fyodorov. He eliminated the letters Е and С and many forms of the letter О. Most reforms saw the number of letters decrease and the simplicity of their inscription increase. But the reverse has also happened: at the end of 18th century the Russian writer and historian Nikolay Karamzin suggested to introduce the letter Ё. Letters Э and Й were officially added to the alphabet in 18th century.   The Cyrillic alphabet achieved its current form in 1708 during the reign of Peter the Great. He introduced lower case characters (before all letters were written with capital letters) and mandated the use of westernized letter forms, making the modern Cyrillic similar to the modern Latin font.  The very existence of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia was once under threat. In 1919 there was an idea to replace it with the Latin one and bring it into harmony with the alphabet used in Western countries. That could have made the process of learning Russian much easier for some, but this was not to be and we can still enjoy the masterpieces of Russian literature in their original script.  Today Cyrillic is the third official script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek scripts. It is used in over 50 different languages, especially those of Slavic origin, mainly in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. In Russia the Old Slavic language, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet has been historically used for religious services, and is sometimes used for these purposes today. The modern Russian alphabet differs from its forefather dramatically, and only experts will be able to tell how the letters of the original Cyrillic alphabet looked like and were read in texts using it.      Courtesy of RT.News

 

 

Relative Activity at the Mills according to Seal Dates 1776 -1838

  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                         

Bentham Mills

       
                                                                                    Aked's High Mill                              
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                   

 

                                           
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                  Little Patrick Mill                                
                                                           

West House Mill

                                                         
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
          Knaresborough                        Cumbria                                                                          
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                     
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