Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

The PeaceHavens Project

https://www.facebook.com/groups/PeaceHavensProject/ ..

Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

 INDEX

Scroll down for an item of interest

 

If you can not find what you are looking for please email me and I will add it to the index

Website design, maps and photos by Ged Dodd - Director of The PeaceHavens Project.

Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

Home Page

 New Project Handbooks

for members ONLY

Identifying

History

INDEX 

Aberlady Bay Scotland

Adel Beck Flax Mills

Agent names list

Aked's High Mill

Anchor Seals

Archangel, Archangelsk

Ardamatzky (Ardamazki)

Bale sizes and weights

Baltic Ports

Baltic Cross Seals

Beetling

Bentham High Mill

Black Balsam

Black Death

Bobbins

Bulla Seals

Caduceus

Circular Dated Seals

Cloth Bale Clamps  

Cog, Cogge

Crescents Stars and *T*'s

Crimping Tools

Custom Tax Seals

Cyrillic Alphabet

DATABASE of INSPECTORS

DATABASE of POSTS

Double Balsam

Dutch Custom Seals

Ebling (Eblag) in Poland

Email - Ged Dodd

Eye Customs Seals

FaceBook - PeaceHavens

Fife Seals article by John Sullivan

Fish Market

Flax Trade Facts

Flax/Fur Trade Villages

Folly Gill Twine Mill  

Galeas & Galliots - Trading Ships

Ged's Rules for Hemp Seal Indent

Gold Coin Weight

Gostorg State Trading Agency

Grading of flax

Great Plague of London

Grower list 

Guano Seals- Icelandic

Guano Seals - Star of David

Hands of Friendship Seals

Hanseatic League

Heckling

Hemp Seals

Hemp & Flax Port Inspectors

HMS Victory

Hull import trade

IDENTIFICATION SERVICE

Inspector designation initials

Jews in the Flax Trade

John Marshall

John Sullivan Article on Fife

Ю T - State Customs Tax

Kildin - White Sea - fur trade

Kinghorn Mills

Klaipedo

Lancaster Maritime Museum

Leubeck Harbour

Libau - Leipaja

Ligatures

Little Patrick Mill

Liverpool Docks, Castle, Mersey

Lost Village of West End

Low Mill

Magnifying Linen Thread Counter

Matthew Murray

Meaning of Abbreviations

Memel

Napoleonic War

Narva

Novgored, Novgorod

NP Port Narva Conundrum

NP, SP, SPB, CПБ, WK, WU

Numbers Only Seals

Owner list

Paired Inspectors

Pavlov Star Seals

Pernau

Piracy and Warfare

Portuguese Gold Coin Weight

Quayside in Medieval Times

Railway Seals

Regten en Accynsen

Rein (Rhine) Hemp R:H

Retting

Reval, Revel

Riga Black Balsam

Riga City Keys

Russian State Arms Seals

Scutching

Ships - Galeas & Galliots

Sklad - depot warehouse

Sort 1 2 3

Spindle Whorls

Spinning Wheels

St George's Quay, Lancaster

St Petersburg City Arms

St Petersburg Seals

Star of David

Star Seals

Stars, Crescents and *T*'s

*T*'s, Stars and Crescents

Tallinn

Tax Custom Seals

Three Pound Twelve Coin Weight

Topsham Hemp Trade

Tow

Trade Tokens

Village Seals

Weather Forecast

West End Mills

West House Mill

Wheel Cranes

Whinny Hill seal field

 

 

 

Hands Of Friendship Seals

Found in fields where the

seals were  predominately

dated 1829 and 1831.

The only known seals of this type

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

1812 Hands of Friendship

One Penny Copper Token

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Rare Pavlov Star Seals

Many Jews in St Petersburg were

involved in the Flax trade.

The six-pointed star, the Magen

David, the Shield of David, the

Star of David, is also known as

a hexagram, or Solomon's Seal.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Mistakes by Seal Makers

SS32H ... should be SS12H

 .. they only did 6H, 9H or

 12H flax heads to the bale.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

 

The first Archangel Seal

found at Folly Gill Mill

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

An antique brass thread counter

used by a travelling cloth buyer to

measure the quality of the linen.

It was found in the seal fields.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

A Three Pound Twelve brass coin

weight found near the Old Gate Inn

Smithy at West End Mills which was

used to check the weight of the gold

Portuguese 8 Escudos coins brought

 over to pay for Linen Goods c.1800.

 

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Website design & photos by Ged Dodd

Director - The PeaceHavens Project.
and powered with free uploading from 

 

 DICTIONARY

 
A. Archangel

AO = Акционерное Общество  = Joint Stock Company
APX, APXA, APXAH, APXAHГ, APXAHГEЛ. Archangel
APXAHAГЛЬCK.  Archangel'sk
A.П (A.P).  Archangel Port

 

БAЛЬЗAMЪ. BALSAM
Б (B). Brack is quality control. БP, БPA, БPAKЬ. (Baraak)
brakovshchik bracker, Quality Control Officer

brakovshchiki brackers, Quality Control Officer

BRAKOVSHCHIK = a bracker (person).
БPAKOBЩ, БPAKOBЩИK (BRAKOVSHIK) Passed Inspection

BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ (VELIKOSELSKOI) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means

 Veliko Village region .. high quality flax from the Veliko Village region

 in Yaroslavl Province. Most of the flax produced in Yaroslavl Province

 was kept in Russia for the production of Yaroslavl Linen.

BИЛEГOДCKOИ (VILEGODSKOI) flax from Vilegda river region.

ВОЛЬНЫЕ СЛУЖИТЕЛИ Bol'nye Cluzhiteli FLOOR ATTENDENTS

BOЛOГДA see (VOLOGDA) city and region

BEPЖБOЛ = VERZHBOL.(OV) = VIRBALIO in Lithuania

 

CAHKTПETEPБПOT (SANKT PETERB POT) St Petersburg Port
CAHKTПETEPБУ:ПOP (SANKTPETERBU POR) St Petersburg Port

CARELIA was superior grade to Novogorod flax bales.

ЧИСТА (chista = clean) from 1733 R hemp seal

CKЛAД (SKLAD) is a Transport Depot or Warehouse

CЫPЦOBAЯ (SYRTSOVAYA) natural
CODILLA (Cedilla) (Paklya) ПAKЛЯ is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or the Heckled Tow is used  for Tow yarns. 
(The broken flax, the coarse part of the flax which falls off from the good flax after the first heckling process and which is made up in bundles of one pood each which are then shipped in large bundles of thirty.)

 

CПБ. SPB .. St Petersburg ... also used as an indicator of flax after 1829.

 

CПБ.TA.OTP.TOB = CПБ.TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP

St Petersburg Customs Department Goods  

Customs Officers are Tsolnery

Chief Customs Officers are Obertsolnery

C. CEЛO = Selo = Village

C Sort

С.ЗАП = СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНЫЙ  = North Western / Ж.Д. = Railroad

COPT, COPTЬ (сортировать) SORT, grade, select, screen

CT (ST) Railway Station (СТАНЦИЯ) Stantsiya

CTЛ.3 a flax grading unique to Inspector I.Novgorodtsov in 1831 

ЧESKA (CHESKA) Low grade heckled flax

 heckled flax *Ч* (hesanyj len = ‘long line’ i.e. long flax)

 

Д (D) DESYATNIK a Quality Control Officer -  was selected by the  brackers themselves who worked under their direct supervision to carry
out the
inspection and certify on their behalf the bundle to which the seal was fastened. Variations are  ДЕС, ДЕСЯCK, ДЕСЯТ,

ДЕСЯТC, ДЕСЯТCK, ДЕСЯТH, ДЕСЯТHИKЪ,

ДЕСЯТЬHИKЪ, ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO, ДЕСЯЦKOИ

 

Dosmotrsshchiki are various inspectors

 

Д = D = Inspector

Д8 = D8 is on 2 flaz seals for Sysoev but the other 3 are ДЗ = DZ
ДA = DA is on flax and hemp seals

ДB = DV (Vologda region). (both flax and hemp seals)
ДC = DS is on flax seals (to date)
ДE = DE is on flax seals (to date)
ДФ = DF is on flax and hemp seals

ДӨ = DTh a strange letter or symbol we have yet to decipher
ДГ = DG is on flax seals (to date)
ДI = DI is on flax seals (to date)
ДИ = DI is on flax and hemp seals

ДII = DII is on hemp seals  (to date - possibly DP)
ДIK = DIK is on hemp seals (to date)
ДIB = DIV is from John Sullivan's book 
ДK = DK is on flax seals (to date)
ДЛ = DL  flax inspector seals ONLY.
ДЛI = DLI  flax inspector seals ONLY.
ДM = DM is on flax seals and hemp seals.
ДT = DT is on flax seals. (to date)
ДB = DV (Vologda region). (both flax and hemp seals)
ДЯ = DYa is on flax seals. (to date)
ДЗ = DZ is on flax seals and hemp seals.

 -------also

ЛД = LD is L'nyanoy Dosmotr (Flax Inspection ONLY)

ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

ПД = PD is Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection ONLY)

ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr) but only

 when in the inspector definition shown below ПiЛПД

ПiЛПД = PiLPD= Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection seal

 (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr)  see the Hemp page.

ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

ЦЦC = TsTsS (perhaps  ППC )

  

ДВИГАТЕЛЬ = DVIGATEL the Carriage Building Works in Talinn

 

F. Fine

FACTOR acts for another, notably a mercantile and colonial agent.

 

G. German

GRADE, CLASS. P (R),  PУ,  PУKA, PУ, (RUKA)

 

HECKLED TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres

 from Scutching or Heckling used for Tow yarns.

(to heckle’ was to dress flax by separating it into its finest fibres)

 

H or N .. number of the post the inspector worked from (or possibly the

registration number stamped of the seal crimping pliers)

 

HИЖHOCУXOHCKOИ (NIVILEGODSKOI) Lower Sukhona flax 

 

I.I. the notation used by Hills and Wishaw instead of the normal NP/SPB

I. I and I. I.C perhaps distortions of П.П and П.П.C port hemp inspectors

 

KLAIPED, MEMEL, Lithuania. The 17th century saw turbulent times in Memel with the city destroyed by the Swedes in 1678. Indeed, the city was so used to attack that until the 1600s, brick or stone houses were forbidden in case they provided refuge for attacking forces.

конопли , KONOPLI ...  KONOPLYA    is hemp

KONTPOЛ (Control .. check point)

K.X.C.Ж.Д = K.Kh.S.Zh.D

Kursk-Kharkov-Sebastopol-Railway-Company

 

K. KPOHЪ (KRON) Crown is high quality long strong filament flax.

KUDEL (TOW)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ, KУДEЛЬH

 is the coarse broken part of hemp or flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes. see Codilla

(LIEPAJA, Latvia)  Libau, the modern Liepaja, is one of two major ice-free ports (with Ventspils) in Kurzeme, the westernmost region of Latvia. Courland, as it once was, was named after the Curi, a seafaring people, who lived here before the German knights arrived. Courland became a duchy under Polish sovereignty after the breakup of Livonia (1562) as a result of the Livonian wars between Sweden and Russia. It belonged then to Gotthard Kettlers, the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and flourished in the next century under Jekabs Kettlers.

 

LC. Lithuanian Czuken is as Rein Hemp but less oily and soft

 

ЛEH  flax

ЛЬНЯНОЕ. (L'NYANOY)   Flax, Linen

ЛД = LD is the designation for flax inspector (L'nyanoy Dosmotr)

ЛЬНЯНОЕ БPAKOBЩ is flax that has passed inspection with these

  abbreviations  ЛHAБPA, ЛHAЯH, ЛHA БPAK, ЛHЯ БP, ЛHЯH:БPAK

ЛИЧ (LICH) is personal or pertaining to a particular person..

ЛП (Flax Dockside {Port} inspector)

ЛПC (Flax Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)

ЛЗ = LZ is possibly  LC. Lihuanian Czuken.

 

MARIENBURG in Livonia was a source of best quality flax for Riga.

MБ possibly Marienburg Badstube, a second grade flax from Riga.

МЕЛЬНИЦА (Mel'jnitsa) .. Mill

MR (RH) Rein (Rhine) Hemp is the longest best hemp, oily, strong

 and free of Codilla and woody particles

 

M.K.B.Ж.Д = M.K.V.Zh.D

Moscow-Kiev-Vorenezh-Railway-Company

 M.И.OДHOДШEBCKAЯ  C  CЫHOBЬЯMИ
(M.I.ODNOUSHEVSKAYA  S  SYNOV'YAMI
)...Arms of Russian State

 

N or H .. number of the post the inspector worked from (or possibly the

registration number stamped of the seal crimping pliers)

NARVA, Estonia. When German Balts turned to old adversaries, the Russians, to fight the Swedes, Peter the Great obliged. In 1700, 35000 Russian soldiers set out for the Swedish garrison at Narva. Charles XII, aged 19, came to its relief with 8000 men and, in a snowstorm, decimated the Russians capturing every artillery piece. Rejecting advisers' calls to press on to Moscow he moved to other fronts. Peter entrusted a second attack on Narva in 1704 to a Scot, Ogilvie. He overwhelmed the garrison, decided no prisoners would be taken and began an indiscriminate slaughter. When Peter arrived, it is said he stopped the massacre by slaying his own attackers with his sword. It was not pure humanity, he wanted Swedish prisoners for building work. The Peace of Nystad in 1721 gave Swedish possessions in the Baltic, including Estonia, to Russia. German merchants carried on as before.

 

N. Norwegian

NIVILEGODSKOI Lower Sukhona flax

NIZHNOSUKONSKOI  (HИЖHOCУXOHCKOИ) Sukhona River flax.

NOVOGOROD was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

 

Obertsolnery are Chief Customs officers

 

O. OTБOPHЬII (OTBORNI) is SELECT grade

OH. OUTSHOT is short second sort hemp

 

P. Poland

P (R),  PУ,  PУKA, PУ, (RUKA) grade, class

(2 PУКИ (2 ruki) (=2nd sort / 9-head)

Pärnu, Estonia. The Livonian bishop, Henricus, first conferred town status on Pernau in 1251 although there had been settlement here from the earliest times. The "new" town of Pernau was also given town status in 1265 and the two continued separately on either side of the river until they were united under the inter-war Estonian government in 1920. From the 16th century onwards it was exporting timber, and later, flax to the Angus ports.

PEN.  ПEH.  Hemp

PEN'KA.  ПEHЬKA  Hemp

PH. Pass Hemp is very short but clean and  free of woody particles.

PORT.  П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA

POOD used as a weight for bales (63 poods make an English ton)

 60 poods of flax and 40 poods of flax codilla make a "last" in St Petersburg.

PSKOVE was a source of best quality flax for St Petersburg

 

ПAKЛЯ.  PAKLYA (Codilla) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from

 Scutching or the Heckled Tow is used  for Tow yarns.

ПAKЛЯ ЧECKA heckled codilla

ПД = PD is the inspector designation for hemp (Penkovy Dosmotr).

ПД = PD is also dockside inspector (Portovy Dosmotr)

ПiЛПД = PiLPD= Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspection seal

 (Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr)  see the Hemp page.

ПП (Hemp Dockside {Port} inspector)

ППC (Hemp Dockside Senior {Port} inspector)  (ЦЦC)

ПЗ = PZ is possibly ПEH ЗAБPAKЪ lowest quality hemp codilla.

ПEH1. PEN1 first grade hemp

ПEH2. PEN2 second grade hemp

ПEH3. PEN3 third grade hemp

ПEHЬKA. PEN'KA  Hemp

П, ПO, ПOP, ПOPTЪ, ПOTPA.  Port {Dockside}

PIГA. RIGA

PIЖOПOPTA. RIGA PORT

PИЖCKИИ ЧEPHЫИ БAЛЬЗAMЪ. RIGA BLACK BALSAM

ПУКН = PUKN = PICK a term which replaced sort and grade.

 

R (chista = clean) Hemp seal from 1733

RC (MC) Mohilow Czuken is oily, heavy, long strong filaments free of

  codilla and woody particles

RH (MR) Rein (Rhine) Hemp is the longest best hemp, oily, strong

 and free of Codilla and woody particles

RIGA =  PИГA,  PИЖ,  РИЖСК, РИЖСКА,  PИЖCKИИ

 

S. SELECT is soft, silk-like flax in 3 grades

S. SPINNING grade

S. SUPERIOR grade

SCUTCHING TOW (Paklya) (Codilla) is HeckledTow. Broken fibres

 from Scutching or Heckling used for Tow yarns.

SKLAD (CKЛAД) is a Transport Depot or Warehouse

SPB. CПБ St Petersburg .. also used to designate hemp seals before 1829 and flax seals from 1829..

ST PETERSBURG (CAHKTПETEPБ) SANKT PETERB

SPOLYYCHEGODSH is a region on the Vilegda river in the Vologda

  Province which produced high quality flax.

SUKHONA is a river in the Vologda Province from where the Ustyug

 region produced high quality flax.

SYRTSOVAYA (CЫPЦOBAЯ) natural

 

TAMOЖHЯ, ТАМОЖЕННАЯ (TAMOZEHNNAYA) = CUSTOMS

TAMOЖHЯ.OTPACЛЬ.TOBAP = Customs Department Goods

TAYPOГ. = TAUROGEN = now TAURAGE in Lithuania 

 

(T.D) Т.Д = ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМЬ = TRADING HOUSE

 

Tsolnery are customs officers

 

TOW (KUDEL)   KУДEЛЬ,   KУДѣЛЯ,  KУДѣЛЬЯ, KУДEЛЬH

 is the coarse broken part of hemp or flax after the Heckling and

 Scutching processes. see Codilla

 

USTYUG is a region on the Sukhona river in the Vologda Province which

  produced high quality flax.

 

VELIKOSELSKOI (BEЛИKOCEЛCKOИ) VELIKO-SELO-SKOI means

 Veliko Village region .. high quality flax from the Veliko Village region

 in Yaroslavl Province. Most of the flax produced in Yaroslavl Province

 was kept in Russia for the production of Yaroslavl Linen.

 

VIATKA (VYATKA) an area of long fibre flax and Tow for Archangel.

 

VILEGODSKOI (BИЛEГOДCKOИ) high quality flax from the Vilegda

 river "Spolvychegodsh" region in Vologda Province..

 

VOLOGDA (BOЛOГДA) a city and region found on the seals of

ХИЛЛCЪ И BИШAУ = KHILLS & VISHAU

= HILLS & WISHAW COMPANY who were established in Archangel in 1842 by William Whishaw.   Eventually most of the trade diverted to St Petersburg and the Baltic ports which was less effected by  the severe Russian winters.  Dew-retted flax from Vologda was of very high quality .. grown on the banks of the rivers Viledga (Spolvychegodsh  region) and Sukhona (Ustyug region).

 

WASNIKOW was superior grade to Novogorod flax bales.

WHITE RUSSIA was a source of best quality flax for Riga

WILNA FLAX.. a fine flax originally exported via Memel until the arrival

 of the Edlykuhu railway whereupon it was transported to Konigsberg.

 

YAROSLAVL PROVINCE. Most of the flax produced in Yaroslavl

 Province was kept in Russia for the production of Yaroslavl Linen.

 

Ю.B.Ж.Д = Yu.V.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

       Юго-Восточная железная дорога  = South Eastern Railroad. 

Ю.З.Ж.Д = Yu.Z.Zh.D = Yugo-Vostochnaya-Railroad

       Юго-Западный железная дорога  =  South Western Railroad.

 

ZABR, ZABRACK, (ЗAБP, ЗAБPAKЪ) lowest quality hemp

З = Z. ЗAБP, ЗAБPAKЪ (ZABR, ZABRACK) lowest quality hemp

ЗАВ. = ЗАВОД = Plant, factory, distillery. Riga Balsam.

Ж.Д = Zh.D = ЖEЛEЗHAЯ ДOPOГA = Railroad Company

 

1-COPTЬ. 1st Sort, Firsts, clean

2-COPTЬ. 2nd Sort, Seconds, short (Outshot)

3-COPTЬ. 3rd Sort, Thirds, half clean

 

 

 *

 

  

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The History of the Cyrillic Alphabet

Learn_RussianThe Cyrillic alphabet owes its name to the 9th century Byzantine missionary St. Cyril, who, along with his brother, Methodius, created the first Slavic alphabet—the Glagolithic—in order to translate Greek religious text to Slavic. It is on the basis of this alphabet that the Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10th century AD by the followers of the brothers, who were beatified as saints.  Based on the Greek ceremonial script, the original Cyrillic alphabet included the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet and 19 letters for sounds specific to the Slavic language. The Cyrillic alphabet has gone through many reforms in both Russia and other countries. In Russia, the first reformer of the Cyrillic was printer and publisher Ivan Fyodorov. He eliminated the letters Е and С and many forms of the letter О. Most reforms saw the number of letters decrease and the simplicity of their inscription increase. But the reverse has also happened: at the end of 18th century the Russian writer and historian Nikolay Karamzin suggested to introduce the letter Ё. Letters Э and Й were officially added to the alphabet in 18th century.   The Cyrillic alphabet achieved its current form in 1708 during the reign of Peter the Great. He introduced lower case characters (before all letters were written with capital letters) and mandated the use of westernized letter forms, making the modern Cyrillic similar to the modern Latin font.  The very existence of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia was once under threat. In 1919 there was an idea to replace it with the Latin one and bring it into harmony with the alphabet used in Western countries. That could have made the process of learning Russian much easier for some, but this was not to be and we can still enjoy the masterpieces of Russian literature in their original script.  Today Cyrillic is the third official script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek scripts. It is used in over 50 different languages, especially those of Slavic origin, mainly in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. In Russia the Old Slavic language, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet has been historically used for religious services, and is sometimes used for these purposes today. The modern Russian alphabet differs from its forefather dramatically, and only experts will be able to tell how the letters of the original Cyrillic alphabet looked like and were read in texts using it.      Courtesy of RT.News

 

 

Relative Activity at the Mills according to Seal Dates 1776 -1838

  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                         

Bentham Mills

       
                                                                                    Aked's High Mill                              
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                   

 

                                           
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                  Little Patrick Mill                                
                                                           

West House Mill

                                                       
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
          Knaresborough                        Cumbria                                                                          
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                               
  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  

The following is a long list of the transactions of flax; tow; codilla and hemp recorded for Dundee in May 1857.

 I have excluded the actual prices that these fetched. It can be found in The Public Ledger & Daily Advertiser of 22 May 1857.

The column for the article is headed ‘Dundee 20 May’ see http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0001260/18570522/026/0003
It is an extensive list giving the names of the ports the products originated from with their grades and descriptions.

It also shows the complex way that the same products were graded and branded in different ports of the Russian Empire and elsewhere in 1857.


FLAX

Archangel   2nd Crown, 3rd Crown, 4th Sort
St Petersburg   12-Heads, 9-Heads, 6-Heads, 3rd Crown
Narva 12-Heads, 9-Heads
Riga DC, FPCM, FPLCM, LPCM, LPDC, PCM, PDC, PHT, PRT, RT, WPCM, WPHT
Liebau   4 Brand, 3 Brand
Memel   OR, Wilna Crown, 4 Brand, Russian Slanitz Crown, RS No: 1, Newstadt Crown
Tilsit  Konigsberg Podolia Crown, Oberland Crown, Druana Crown, Slanitz No: 1

TOW
Archangel   No: 1, No: 2
St Petersburg   No: 1, No: 2,
Vologda   Classen’s No: 1, Classen’s No: 2

CODILLA
Archangel  No: 2, No: 3
St Petersburg
Riga
Memel

HEMP
Petersburg   (Clean) Outshot, Half-clean
Riga   (Polish Rhine) Outshot, Pass


www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk