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Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

Knaresborough District

 (50 flax seals found to date with 0 seals awaiting upload as of 10th October 2016)

 

    About PeaceHavens - This database is an ongoing project involving the daily finding and identification of Russian Lead Flax Bale Seals from the old disused 18th/19th century Flax Mills of the Industrial Revolution in the UK.   For many decades in the 18th & 19th centuries, Russia was by far the world's greatest exporter of these flax stems via Archangel, the Baltic ports, St Petersburg, and Riga, and the UK was its major customer. Every bale of flax stems was fastened together with a lead seal by a quality control inspector. The discarded stems of the flax with seals still attached were prized as fertilizer by farmers and spread onto the land mixed with night soil manure.

Russian Lead Flax & Hemp Bale Seals

 found in the Knaresborough District

 

 

Lead Flax Bale Seals from Archangel

There are more Archangel seals on the other sites

 

 

Knaresborough Site

Supervisor Harry Bell

 

 

 

Modern

Cyrillic

 Alphabet

 

A=A,  B=V,  Б=B,   C=S,

Ч=CH, Д=D,   E=A,  И=E,

Ё=O,  Э=EH,  Ф=F,  Г=G,

H=N, K=K,  Л=L,  M=M,

O=O, Ө=F,Th.  П=P, Р=R,

Ж=ZH,  Ш=SH,  Щ=SHCH,

T=T,  Ц=TS,  У=U,  Ю=YU,

Я= YA, ѣ=YE,  Х= KH,

З = Z,  Ы = Y,  Ь Ъ=' "

 

 

Inspectors and Posts

for Knaresborough

 

 

  Arefav          1777  39

  Balashev.N      1811   3

  Beleshnov       1786 111

  Binkov.G        1786 2--

  Chelpanov       1786 335

  Chelpanov.S     1787  46

  Cherntsov       1777 231

  Darafee.S       1801 124

  Ershev          1786 116

  Kirilovov       1786 308

  Koroleff        1744   2

  Kuchin          1786 361

  Kuchin          1786 432

  Kudryaev.I      1823   1

  Levshev.A       1788  18

  Lovkov.L        1801  18

  N01             1760   3

  N02             1761  25

  N03             1760  49

  Nikiforov.G     1797  71

  Petelin         1783  34

  Primyakin       1778 336

  Savostin        1786 311

  Selenov         178? 100

  Shchipochev.A   1797  12

  Simonov.M       1816  82

  Varzov.I        1816  31

  Volkov.V        1811  78

 

Posts / Inspectors / #

Knaresborough

 

   1 I.Kudryaev    1823#Kn01

   2 Koroleff      1744#Kn01

   3 N3 1760       NumKn01

   3 N.Balashev    1811#Kn01

  12 A.Shchipochev 1797#Kn01

  18 A.Levshev     1788#Kn01

  18 L.Lovkov      1801#Kn02

  25 N25 1761      NumKn02

  31 I.Varzov      1816#Kn01

  34 Petelin       1783#Kn01

  39 Arefav        1777#Kn05

  46 S.Chelpanov   1787#Kn01

  49 N49 1761      NumKn03

  71 G.Nikiforov   1797#Kn02

  78 V.Volkov      1811#Kn02

  82 M.Simonov     1816#Kn02

 100 Selenov       178?#Kn01

 111 Beleshnov     1786#Kn08

 116 Ershev        1786#Kn07

 124 Darafee.S     1801#Kn03

 2-- G.Binkov      1786#Kn12

 231 Cherntsov     1777#Kn01

 308 Kirilovov     1786#Kn01

 335 Chelpanov     1786#Kn03

 336 Primyakin     1778#Kn01

 361 Kuchin        1786#Kn02

 432 Kuchin        1786#Kn05

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

How the seals got

into the fields

 

The discarded stalks of the flax with

a bale seal still attached were highly

 prized as fertilizer by local farmers

and they were spread on to the land

mixed in human & animal excrement.

 

 

------------------

 

 

 

The *T* Conundrum

Some Knaresborough seals

have an unusual *T*

notation under the date.

The reason for this is not clear but

it could indicate a Customs Tax

 where T = TAMOЖHЯ (Tamozhnya)

 

  Examples of *T* can be found at

 

 1786Kn02 Kuchin       361

 1786Kn08 Beleninov    111

 1786Kn09 Beleninov    111

 1786Kn12 Binkov.G     2--

 1775Cr026 Moshnikov.? 307

 

 IDS 215 1787 OIOYOV    --

 IDS 519 1775 --        --

 IDS 556 1770 - (hemp)    --

 IDS 783 1787(flax)      74

 

   The range appears to be 1770- 1787

 

The Crescent Conundrum

Some Flax/Hemp seals

have an unusual Crescent

shape under the date.

This is thought to be the bottom of

an anchor wherein the Christians

anchored their faith .. meaning ..

these were Christian seals.

Here are crosses with an anchor

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   Examples of Anchor Seals

         number          name            post

  1778Kn01  Primyakin  336

  1786Kn03  Chelpanov  335

  1786Kn04  Savostin   311

  1786Kn05  Kuchin     432

  1777Cr009 Zemskoi     51

  1777Cr016 Zemskoi     51

      All the the above seals are (flax)

 

   Cum 1787 01(flax)    25

   IDS 014 1781(hemp)    8

   IDS 037 1788(flax)   44

   IDS 076 1783(hemp)  410

   IDS 165 1778(flax)  334

   IDS 172 1785(flax)  234

   IDS 432 1779(hemp)  165

   IDS 460 1787(flax)   47

   IDS 464 1786(flax)  335

   IDS 485 1778(flax)  323

   IDS 495 1787(flax)   70

   IDS 504 1787(flax)   41

   IDS 520 1790(flax)   66

   IDS 521 1778 --      14

   IDS 522 1783 --      --

   IDS 543 1785(hemp)   --

   IDS 661 1784(hemp)   --

   IDS 672 1786(flax)   74

   IDS 732 1776(flax)  138

   IDS 758 1784(hemp)   48

   IDS 780 1780(flax)    2

   IDS 785 1792(hemp)  140

   IDS 852 1786(hemp)    --

   IDS 889 1777(flax)  308

   IDS 893 1776(flax)    2

   IDS 894 1778(flax)  110

   IDS 961 1781(hemp)   22

   IDS 982 1807(flax)   76

   IDS 983 1781(hemp) N382

  IDS 1005 1777(flax)  308

 

    Torpoint, Cornwall

    T02    1781(hemp)   22

    T03    1781(hemp)   30

    KX02   1780(hemp)   -

    The range appears to be 1776 - 1792

 

The Star Conundrum

Most seals have star designs

on them and although they are thought to be just space fillers

I suggest they are separators

of blocks of information.

*NP*IMK12H*1777*

 

but when a star replaces a

post number on the obverse

of a seal it is a hemp seal

 

  Examples of hemp stars can be seen at

 

  NP180?w06 ?.?o?niko   *

  NP1811w06 K.Sinyakov  *

  NP1811w09 F.Baboshin  *

  NP1811w10 L.Selin     *

  NP1811w11 I.Syromyat  *

  NP1811w12 I.Syromyat  *

  NP1811w17 I.Vlasov    *

  NP1829wS1 K.Sinyakov  *

 

  IDS 162 I.Syromyat    *

  IDS 490 E.Sebn'in     *

 

 Most seals are from West House Mills.

 

 

More Unusual Shapes

These seals have a key or

fish design under the date.

 

  Examples of these can be seen at

 

 8 Mol:2006.6 Sinyakov  ?

 

 IDS 13 T.Churyatov    107

 

 IDS 377 K.Ivanov       ?

  

  

  IDS 755 ?.Vavikov     10

 

 

 

  IDS 891 Tomilin       29

 

  Cr024  M.Boloshev     11

  IDS 883 I.Rastrepaev  73

 

Tax Seal Stylized Ship Hull

 

 

  Examples of these can be seen at

 

 IDS 391 St Petersburg 1798

 

 Tax Seal with Crimping Tool

 

 

  Examples of these can be seen at

 IDS 339 St Petersburg 1798

 

 IDS 340 St Petersburg 1762

 

 IDS 342 St Petersburg 1792

 

 IDS 637 Riga          1782

 

 IDS 715 G.Valoban 17?? has

 a tiny set in the letter O

 

 Separator Bars

are used to underline a grade number.

No 2 above a separator bar is 2nd grade

flax (or hemp) not a number 2 post.

 

  Examples of these can be seen at

 1848KH01 Kinghorn

 

 1844Kn01 Knaresborough

 

   IDS 679 Montrose

 

 

 

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Arch
Kn01

A. П.
(Archangel Port)
ДECЯTC
? ?

A. П.
(Archangel Port)
 ЛHЯH:БPA
2 BD P 1829

A P

LNYAN:BRAK

2 BD R

1829  (flax)

           

Lead Flax Bale Seals from Baltic States
There are more Baltic States seals on the other sites

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

B++
Kn01

quartered
shield with
5/5/-/- pellets

12K
WB
ligature

Baltic States
(Krown flax)

B++
Kn02

quartered
+ shield with

-/-/-/- pellets

12K
G.H.

Baltic States
(Krown flax)

           

Lead Flax Bale Seals from Riga, Latvia

There are more Riga seals on the other sites

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Riga

Kn01

+

 crossed keys

-

usually

blank

Riga

Riga

Kn02

+

 crossed keys

-

usually

blank

Riga

Riga

Kn03

+

 crossed keys

-

usually

blank

Riga

Riga

Kn04

+

 crossed keys

-

usually

blank

Riga

Riga

Kn05

+

 crossed keys

2

usually

blank

Riga

2nd

grade

BБ

Kn01

1807

БT

? И * T A

blank

Jute

Similar ЮБT, ЮBT, ЮДT , ЮET seals here thought to be Tax seals.
           
           

Number Only Seals

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Num

Kn01

N

3

NP

AN12PS

1760

3

post
(flax)

Num

Kn02

N

25

WK

AN9ПS

1761

25

post
(flax)

Num

Kn03

N

49

NP

AN12FE

1760

49

post
(flax)

           
 

1777

These seals are AO, Акционерное Общество  = Joint Stock Company,

which on rare occasions replaced the inspector designation of ЛД or ПД.

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1777

Kn01

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

NP

IMK12H

1777

231

post
(flax)

1777

Kn02

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

NP

DC12H

1777

231

post
(flax)

1777

Kn03

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

NP

MM12H

1777

231

post
(flax)

1777

Kn04

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

NP

12H

1777

231

post
(flax)

1777

Kn05

AO = AO

APEФABЬ

(AREFAV)

N39

NP

MӨ:12H

1777

39

post
(flax)

IDS453

1777

Kn06

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

N:P

(lig)HP12H

1777

231

post
(flax)

1777

Kn07

  AO = AO

ЧEPHЦOBЬ

(CHERNTSOV)

H231

N:P

PH12K

1777

231

post
(flax)

           

 

1778

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1778

Kn01

ДT = DT

ПPИMЯKИHЬ

(PRIMYAKIN)

H336

NP

MC12H

1778

(crescent)

336
post
(flax)

1778

Kn02

ДB = DV

EPШEBЬ

(ERSHEV)

H116

NP

ICZ12H

1778

116
post
(flax)
Vologda

           

 

1783

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1783

Kn01

Д:A = D:A

ПETEЛИHЬ

(PETELIN)

H34

NP

OC12H

1783

34
post
(flax)

           

 

1786

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1786

Kn01

 ДH = DN
KИPИЛOBЬ
(KIRILOV)
H308

NP

FFE12H

1786

308

post
(flax)

1786

Kn02

ДI= DI

KУЧИHЬ

(KUCHIN)

H361

NP

HP12H

1786

*T*

361

post
(flax)

1786

Kn03

ДC = DS

ЧEЛПAHOBЬ

(CHELPANOV)

H335

NP

CFK12K

1786

(crescent)

335

post
(flax)

1786

Kn04

ДA= DA

CABOSTИHЬ

(SAVOSTIN)

H311

NP

CFK12K

1786

(crecent)

311

post
(flax)

1786

Kn05

ДA= DA

KУЧИHЬ

(KUCHIN)

H432

NP

CFK12K

1786

(c)

432

post
(flax)

1786

Kn06

ДI= DI

KУЧИHЬ

(KUCHIN)

H361

NP

IKC12H

1786

361

post
(flax)

1786

Kn07

ДB = DV

EPШEBЬ

(ERSHEV)

H116

NP

??K12K

1786

116
post
(flax)
Vologda

1786

Kn08

ДИ= DI

БEЛEHIHOB

(BELENINOV)

H111

NP

HP12H

1786

*T*

111

post
(flax)

1786

Kn09

ДИ= DI

БEЛEHIHOB

(BELENINOV)

H111

NP

HP12H

1786

*T*

111

post
(flax)

1786

Kn10

ДI= DI

KУЧИHЬ

(KUCHIN)

H361

NP

IKC12H

1786

361

post
(flax)

1786

Kn11

ДI= DI

KУЧИHЬ

(KUCHIN)

H361

NP

PN12H

1786

361

post
(flax)

1786

Kn12

ДK= DK

Г.БИHKOBЬ

(G.BINKOV)

H2?

NP

HP12H

1786

*T*

361

post
(flax)

           
           

 

1787

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1787

Kn01

ЛД = LD

C:ЧEЛПAHOB

(S.CHELPANOV)

H46

NP

HP12H
1787

46
post
(flax)

           

 

1788

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1788

Kn01

ДЛ= DL

A.ЛEBШEBЬ

(A.LEVSHEV)

H18

NP
? Ф12H
1788

18
post
(flax)

           

 

178?

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

178?

Kn01

ДB = DV

CEЛEHEBЬ

(SELENEV)

H100

N:P

IMI2K

178?

100

post
(flax)

178?

Kn02

ДB = DV

CEЛEHEBЬ

(SELENEV)

H100

N:P

AKI2H

178?

100

post
(flax)

   

 

 

 

 

 

1792

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1792

Kn01

ЛД = LD

T.ПPИMAKИ.

(T.PRIMAKI)

H21

NP

?H12H

1792

21

post
(flax)

           

 

1797

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1797

Kn01

ЛД = LD

A.ЩИПOЧEB

(A.SHCHIPOCHEV)

H12

NP

KAC12H

1797

12
post
(flax)

1797

Kn02

ЛД = LD
Г.HИKИФORO
B

(G.NIKIFOROV)

H71

WK

PБ12K

1797

71

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Аа=A, Вв=V, С с=S, Б б=B, Чч=CH, Дд=d, Ее=E, Ё=O, Ээ=EH, Ии=I, Йй=Y Ф=F, Гг=G, Кк=K, Лл=L, Мм=M, H н=N, Oо= Ө=F,Th, П=P, Рр=R, Жж=ZH, Ш ш=SH, Щ=SHCH, Тт=T, ЦTS, Уу=U, Юю=YU, Я я=YA, ѣ=YE, З з=Z, Ь ь Ъ=', ы=Y,

 

1801

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1801

Kn01

ЛД = LD

T.ПPИMAKИ.

T.PRIMAKI)

H21

NP

?K12H

1801

21

post
(flax)

1801

Kn02

ЛД = LD

Л.ЛOBKOBЬ

(L.LOVKOV)

H18

NP

IS12H

1801

18

post
(flax)

1801

Kn03

ЛД = LD

C.ДAPAФEE

(S.DARAFEE)

H124

NP

IS12H

1801

124

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1811

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1811

Kn01

ЛД = LD

H:БAЛAШEB

(N.BALASHEV)

H3

NP
IB9K
1811

3
post
(flax)

1811

Kn02

ЛД = LD

B.BOLKOBЬ

(V.VOLKOV)

H78

NP

BK???

1811

78
post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1816

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1816

Kn01

ЛД = LD

И:BAPЗOBЬ

(I.VARZOV)

H31

NP

IH12H

1816

31

post
(flax)

1816

Kn02

ЛД = LD

M:CИMAHOBЬ

(M.SIMANOV)

H82

NP

AG12H

1816

82

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1823

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1823

Kn01

ЛД = LD

И:KУДPЯEBЬ

(I.KUDRAEV)

H1

NP

ФF9H

1823

1

post
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1844

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

1844

Kn01

 

KOROLEFF

П.Ф.K

ST.P.B

Ho_2
_,_

1844

2nd grade
(flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

Medieval Lead Trading Tokens

 

Approx

20ml diameter

x 2mm thick

these tokens are

much older than

those found at

West House Mills.

c. 17th Century

 

see

Trading Tokens Page

 

 

Blank Bag Seals

These are blank bag seals

found at Knaresborough..

They are not flax seals.

 

The two smaller ones are

similar to others found

near the retting tanks at

West House Mills.

 

Far right is a Proctor

 Ryland Manure bag seal.

 

Cloth Alnage Seals

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

CAL

01

Stuart Arms of

Charles II

 Alnage Seal

CARSAY

1679

(Kersey cloth) 

CAL

02

Stuart Arms of

Charles II

 Alnage Seal

CARSAY

16??

(Kersey cloth)

CAL

03

??

??

CAL

04

blank

blank

CAL

05

? D

blank

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Recommended

Bed & Breakfast

Scaife Hall Farm, Blubberhouses

Contact Christine, Hardisty Hill,

 Blubberhouses, Otley. LS21 2PL
Telephone  01943 880354

 

 

Relative Activity at the Mills according to Seal Dates 1776 -1838

  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                         

Bentham Mills

       
                                                                                    Aked's High Mill                              
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                   

 

                                           
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                  Little Patrick Mill                                
                                                           

West House Mill

                                                       
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
          Knaresborough                        Cumbria                                                                          
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                               
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