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Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

from Scotland Mill - Adel - Leeds

(10 seals found to date with 0 seals awaiting upload as of 22nd November 2017)

 The small number of Russian flax bale seals found to date would suggest that the

 main dumping field for this mill has yet to be found and the search continues.

 

 

Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

 

    About PeaceHavens - This database is an ongoing project involving the daily finding and identification of Russian Lead Flax Bale Seals from the disused 18th/19th century Flax Mills of the Industrial Revolution in the UK. For many decades in the 18th & 19th centuries, Russia was by far the world's greatest exporter of these flax stems via Archangel, St Petersburg, Kronstadt, Narva, Riga, Libau, Memel, Konigsberg, Pilau, Pernau, Revel, and Tilsit and Great Britain was Russia's major customer Every bale of flax stems was fastened together with a lead seal by a quality control inspector. The discarded stems of the flax with seals still attached were prized as fertilizer by local farmers and were spread onto the land mixed with night soil manure.

 

Russian Lead Flax/Hemp Bale Seals from

Scotland Mill at Adel - Leeds

Photo taken in 1905 looking north from a field on Bywaters Farm.

More history and pics can be seen below the Seals

 

Lead Flax Bale Seals from Baltic States

There are more Baltic States seals on the other sites

 

With thanks to Neil Jones

for all his assistance

 

  Modern

Cyrillic

 Alphabet

 

A=A,  B=V,  Б=B,   C=S,

Ч=CH, Д=D,   E=A,  И=E,

Ё=O,  Э=EH,  Ф=F,  Г=G,

H=N, K=K,  Л=L,  M=M,

O=O, Ө=F,Th.  П=P, Р=R,

Ж=ZH,  Ш=SH,  Щ=SHCH,

T=T,  Ц=TS,  У=U,  Ю=YU,

Я= YA, ѣ=YE,  Х= KH,

З = Z,  Ы = Y,  Ь Ъ=' "

 

Inspectors and Posts

for Scotland Mill

 

  Chernikov.T    1815  18
  Fedotov.M      1826  13
  Erokhin.S      18??  49
  Kuchkov        18??  69
  Pronin.V       1825 128

  Sarafanin.K.I  1826 104
  Sinyakov.G     1820  54
  Varaksi.I      1820  14
  Volkov.V       1826  78

Posts / Inspectors / #
for Scotland Mill

 

  13 M.Fedotov     1826#003
  14 I.Varaksi     1820#001
  18 T.Chernikov   1815#001
  49 S.Erokhin     18??#001
  54 G.Sinyakov    1820#002
  69 Kuchkov       18??#002
  78 V.Volkov      1826#001

 104 K.I.Sarafanin 1826#004
 128 V.Pronin      1826#002

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

How the seals got

into the fields

 

The discarded stalks of the flax with

a bale seal still attached were highly

 prized as fertilizer by local farmers

and they were spread on to the land

mixed in human & animal excrement.

 

 

 

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Scot
001
IDS 638

quartered
+ shield with
-/-/4/5 annulets

HW
12K

Riga, Narva
Baltic States
(Krown flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18?? may be from 1810 - 1828

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Scot
18??
001

ЛД = LD
C.EPOХИHЪ
(S.EROKHIN)
H49

NP
IB12H
182?

49
post

(IDS 645)
 (flax)

Scot
18??
002

ЛД = LD
KУЧKOBЬ
( KUCHKOV)
H69

NP
1B12H
18??

69
post

(IDS 646)
 (flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1815

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Scot
1815
001

ЛД = LD
T:ЧEPHИKOBЬ
(T.CHERNIKOV)
H18

NP
ИЧ12H
1815

18
post

(IDS 640)
 (flax)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1820

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Scot
1820
001

ЛД = LD
И.BAPAKCИ
(I.VARAKSI)
N14

NP
IMБ12H
1820

14
post

(IDS 641)
 (flax)

Scot
1820
002

ЛД = LD
Г.CИHЯKOBЬ
(G.SINYAKOV)
H54

NP
HШ12H
1820

54
post

(IDS 644)
 (flax)

           

1826

Letters in this colour are inferred from other seals found elsewhere

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Scot
1826
001

ЛД = LD
B:BOЛKOBЬ
(V.VOLKOV)
H78

NP
WH12H
1826

78
post

(IDS 639)
 (flax)

Scot
1826
002

ЛД = LD
B.ПPOHИHЬ
(V.PRONIN)
N128

NP
OP12H
1826

128
post

(IDS 642)
 (flax)

Scot
1826
003

ЛД = LD
M.ФEДOTOBЬ
(M.FEDOTOV)
N13

NP
JH12H
1826

13
post

(IDS 643)
 (flax)

Scot
1826
004

ЛД = LD
К.І.САРАФАНИ
(K.I.SARAFANIN)
H104

NP
AБ12H
1826

104
post

 (flax)

           
           
 
 
 

 

 

History of Scotland Flax Mill at Adel

 

   Scotland Mill was built by James Whiteley in 1785, and then leased to John Marshall, and  engineer Matthew Murray who adapted the spinning machinery to the use of flax rather than cotton. The flax spinning was successful, Marshall needed a larger, less isolated site to expand his business and so moved to Holbeck.

    There were a variety of occupants at the mill after he left.  A Woodhouse paper-maker called John Moody Harrison, operated a paper mill in 1808, but  a fire the following year destroyed much of the mill.    Tenants changed, with flax dressing and spinning being carried out until 1906 when Edwin Ingham, a bleacher, was in business and the mill was again burnt down and never reopened...

 

-----------------------------

   The seals found are dated 1815, 1820, 1826, which does not correspond to the late 1700's when Marshall was in full flow with his flax so we have not yet found the correct seal field ..

-----------------------------

 

 Matthew Murray

  Everyone knows the first railway engine was built by George Stevenson for the Stockton & Darlington Railway. An example of whoever gets the publicity gets the credit .. but like so much that we know, this is simply not true.

 The first railway engines were in fact designed & built by a young self-taught engineer named Matthew Murray, 13 years before Stevenson, and were used to transport coal from a colliery into Leeds city.

   But Murray's claim to fame is much more significant than this. It was his engineering skills that made possible the flax-spinning industry that drove the expansion of Leeds from a town into a city.

  And it was in peaceful, rural Adel, of all places, that Matthew Murray made his name.
  Murray was born into a working-class family at Stockton-on-Tees in 1763. He grew into a big strong lad, and was apprenticed in due course to a blacksmith. There was no suitable local work for him locally and so, the story goes, he walked south, arriving in Leeds without even the money to pay for a night's lodging. He told the inn-keeper he expected to find work at Marshall's mill, the next day, and he did

.

   Marshall was a young entrepreneur (two years younger than Murray), son of a Leeds linen draper, who had leased Scotland Mill in Adel in partnership with his mother Mary Marshall and Samuel Fenton in 1785, was desperately trying to iron out the problems in a new technique for spinning flax into yarn. After two years of effort he was no nearer a solution. There were serious flaws in the 'heckling' process - that is, in cleaning and straightening the fibres ready for spinning - and Murray set to work to identify and correct them.
  The key problem was that the yarn produced was of uneven thickness and tended to keep breaking. The fibres in flax, unlike those in cotton or wool, are relatively long and inelastic. Murray realised that the fibres were refusing to stick together properly, and that a better method had to be devised for combing out the unwanted plant debris and pulling the fibres more smoothly off the roller.
   In 1790, just a few months after he had arrived in Adel, he had created an improved machine that could spin flax successfully. A grateful Marshall presented him with £20 and promoted him to the job of First Mechanic in the workshop.
  The heckling machine Murray designed looked like this. The drawing appeared in an article about Marshall's mills in The Penny Magazine of 1843.
   Marshall had been struggling for two years to make his machine work properly, and was in fact being sued by the inventor for £900. Marshall fought the action, and won, but then acknowledged that he wouldn't have been able to pay if he had lost. Murray had arrived just in time.
    Marshall had originally entered the flax-spinning business because he saw a gap in the market. He believed that if the mechanical problems could be overcome, as they had been in cotton-spinning machinery, there was a fortune to be made in supplying cheap yarn to the linen-makers. His father had been a linen draper in Leeds, so he knew how the industry worked. When his father died, leaving him several thousand pounds, Marshall persuaded a couple of partners to join him and spent his inheritance on leasing the mill in Adel and negotiating rights to use the machinery.
 Once Murray had sorted out the mechanical problems, Marshall had a product to sell, and the orders began to roll in. He quickly realised that he needed much more space. He bought a site in Holbeck and built Temple Mill, four storeys high, and filled it with handlooms, spinning frames and carding engines. Power was supplied by a 20 horse-power Boulton & Watt steam engine. When he'd finished, the firm was £4,000 in debt, and his partners decided it was time to quit. They couldn't have picked a worse moment - the factory was an immediate success, and highly profitable. A year or so later Marshall found new partners and began spending their money on building another mill.  By 1804 he had made enough money to buy them out. The firm was then employing over 1,000 people, using 150 horse-power from steam engines to drive nearly 7,000 spindles. It was the largest flax spinning operation in the country . In 1820 Marshall was said to be worth over £400,000.
   And where Marshall went, others followed. In 1821 there were 19 firms in Leeds spinning flax. By 1855 there were 37 firms.
  Like many another factory-owner, Marshall looked on his workforce as just another resource to be exploited as ruthlessly as possible. The conditions in his factories were compared to those of Negro slaves on the plantations. Everyone, manager, overseers, mechanics, oilers, spreaders, spinners and reelers, have their particular duty pointed out to them, and if they transgress, they are instantly dismissed as unfit for their situation.

--------------

Verity Mill

    Up the path from the mill dam beyond the Seven Arches aqueduct stood the  flax mill that was later converted into the very popular Verity Tea Room but nothing remains now except the spring beside the path which issues into a basin from a carved stone head (really badly defaced) known as the Slavering or Slabbering Baby.

     The mill was a tiny enterprise of 8 young women built by Miles Potter just before 1839.

  When the Leeds Water Company reduced the flow of water in King's Lane Beck affecting the water wheel Miles Potter was then obliged to construct a "cut" from Stair Foot Bridge to a small mill pond on the banks of King's Lane Beck .. both of which can still be seen.  The life of this tiny venture was brief and so far nothing has been found of note ......,

 

 

Cottages built in the 1790's for workers at Scotland Mill

Scotland Mill Cottages numbers 6 - 1 from photo taken in 1959

from the mill ruins looking south-west towards Bywaters Farm.

 

Scotland Mill Cottages numbers 6 - 1 from photo taken in 1959

from the mill ruins looking south-east towards Scotland Mill Lane

 

Scotland Mill Cottages numbers 6 - 3 from photo taken in 1959.

Scotland Mill Lane and Bridge are to the right of the garage but

access was totally cut off when the Leeds Ring Road was built.

 

Scotland Mill Lane bridge over Adel Beck

 

Scotland Mill Bleaching Sheds from photo taken in 1959

looking west towards the bleaching fields on the hill side.

 

Another view of the Bleaching Sheds from photo taken in 1959

looking west on the lane to the bleaching fields on the hill side

 

Matthew Murray Heckling Machine from 1790

 

Marshall moved to Holbeck Mills in Leeds

 

Neil Jones at the Water Wheel Housing at Scotland Mills

 

The huge stone housing for the water wheel

 

Neil Jones finds an outside toilet at Scotland Mill Cottages

 

Neil Jones crossing the Dam above Scotland Mill, See *

 

Ged Dodd at Scotland Mill - Photo by Neil Jones

 

Verity's Tea Room was an old Flax Mill

* The Devastation of Scotland Mill Dam Pond and Cottages by the flood of 1829.

  On the night of July 11th, a dreadful inundation occurred in Leeds and the neighbourhood, occasioned by the bursting of a reservoir, situate at Black Moor Hill, near Adel, about seven miles north-west of Leeds, which broke down its banks. The reservoir is situated nearly at the head of the stream known by the various names of Adel Beck, Woodhouse Beck, and Sheepscar Beck, through which places it passes in its course to the river Aire, at Leeds. The reservoir dam occupies an extent of from twenty to twenty-five acres, and is rather formed by natural than artificial means, the only embankment being at the east end, which is about fifteen feet high, and it was the breaking or giving way of this embankment, which caused the flood.

  A breach having been made, the water rushed through with dreadful impetuosity, swelling the small rivulet of Adel Beck to a mighty stream, and carrying violent ruin and destruction along with it, until it emptied itself into the river Aire, at Leeds.
   Nothing could stop its progress. It threw down bridges, Scotland Mill dam pond, levelled walls, uprooted fences, and carried devastation into all the adjoining lands with the dwellings of the humble mill cottagers being deluged, many of whom suffered severely, and some were deprived of every vestige of clothing and furniture they had in the world. The whole contents of this vast reservoir emptied itself in two hours”,

 

The magnificent Temple Mill built by Marshall at Holbeck with an Ancient Egyptian Temple facade.

 (A Grade I listed former flax mill built between 1836 to 1840 and based on the Temple of Horus at Edfu,

 reflecting a craze for Ancient Egypt which swept European society in the first half of the 19th century.)

 

 

------------------------------------

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