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Lead Trading Tokens

West House Mill - Blubberhouses

(151 tokens found to date with 0 tokens awaiting upload as of 27th October 2017)

 

     

Click here for the Project Site Map and Links

 

    The PeaceHavens Project is an ongoing work involving the finding and identification of Russian Lead Flax Bale Seals and Lead Trade Tokens from the dismantled Flax Mills in the North of England.   For many decades in the 18th & 19th centuries, Russia was by far the world's greatest exporter of flax stems via St Petersburg, Archangel and Riga, and Great Britain was its major customer.

    The Flax Mill and Weaving Shed at West House Mill used child labour in the form of apprentices, orphans and paupers ..and they were paid in the Lead Trading Tokens as shown below in the photos of tokens found in the Mill fields.

 

From the book ..Child Workers in England 1780 - 1820

 From looking at the Fewston burials it would appear that three of these apprentices who came from Southwark

 are buried at St Michaels - Elizabeth Smallwood age 17 - Mary Richardson age 14 - David Thompson age 12

Maureen Frackrell is currently researching burials at Fewston Church.   email:- m@2istudio.elipse.co.uk

 

Lead Trading Tokens

found by Ged Dodd and Johnny StormCrow near West House Mill

#

 OBVERSE

Click on a Thumbnail to Enlarge  

REVERSE

NOTES

1P

01

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

6.1 grams

22x18x3

 

The consensus is that those

tokens with rings and pellets

are possibly 15/16th century

medieval trading tokens while

the others are 18th century.

 

This may well be but with the

location of the tokens being

outside the back door of the

mill, and the woods around

the Orphan House I am led

to think the tokens were for

rewards for the orphans for

work well done. After all the

trade token probably had a

value of less than a farthing.

 

 

Orphan Children at the Mill.

 

Orphan children and Paupers

were brought from (or rather

bought in) London to work in

the remote West House Mills.

 

The orphans were housed in

the Apprentice House and the

Pauper families went to the

Workhouse on Hardistry Hill.

 

All were probably well fed,

albeit on porridge or bread.

 

 

Some times the children got

to go to church and had an

education, of sorts as shown

 

 

by a "genuine" Lead Pencil

found at Apprentice House

and another "fatter" crayon

in the far bleaching field ..

 

 

but by the same token on

the down side the mill was

like a prison with repetitive

hard work for sixteen hours

a day from 5am until 9pm

with perhaps an hour for

a midday meal and rest.

 

There was no such thing as

"political correctness" or

"health and safety" so many

workers suffered the loss of

limbs in dreadful conditions.

 

 

Broken cog wheels attest to

machines run to destruction.

----------------

A small bronze stylus found

near the Apprentice House

was used to keep a tally of

pieces of linen cloth in the

bleaching fields of the mill

on a pocket sized wax tablet.

 

 

----------------

 

A small lead trading token

to buy a few sweets or a

small lead toy would have

been a welcome reward.

 

12th-13th century designs but most

probably made in the 18th century.

----------------

 

Children's toys found at

West House Mill included

lead whirligigs (buzzers)

and lead pocket watches

 

 

A witchcraft pocket watch with reverse

numbers was more likely a lead die for

making sundials by impressing the image

into smooth flat clay and putting a small

stick into the hole in the centre. Perhaps

a teaching tool at the Apprentice House.

----------------

 

The tokens were found in two locations

 .. the first on a small patch of grass to

the rear of the mill in the bleaching fields.

These tokens were in very good condition,

presumed newly made when dropped

in good neutral soil.

  

 The second site was near to the Apprentice

House in & around the wood where the

tokens were in bad condition and worn

very smooth with years of constant use

making some totally blank on both sides.

 

Also the very acid soil in the wood caused

by the leaf mold has corroded the lead

and the tokens were very fragile and crumbly

 to the touch & were mostly unreadable

 

So near yet so far.

 

-------------------------

 

The most heart rending

find at Apprentice House

was a tiny 17mm diameter

 

 

marble, hand carved from

a banded clay stone which

must have been the prized

possession of a motherless

child in those dark days.

 

-------------------------

 

Another example of the abject

 poverty of the workers comes

in the form of a lead seal bent

in the S-shape of a love token.

 

 

Love tokens were commonly

exchanged during this time

but they were always made

 from silver sixpences or at

least a copper half penny.

 

Giving a lead token would

be today's equivalent of

giving your loved one a

wedding ring, not made of

gold, not silver, not even

brass .. but cheap plastic.

 

Now that is real poverty.

 

-------------------------

 

A large 9oz medieval lead

trade weight found on the

big hunt by JetSkiJohn

 

 

-------------------

 

 

This account of conditions in the

Leeds Workhouse in 1797 will

 give an idea of conditions here.

     There are 154 inmates in the Leeds Workhouse, of whom 42 are old and infirm men or lunatics, 56 women, many of them soldiers' wives, and 56 children mostly under 12. There are a few cripples or idiots between 12 and 20. Children are generally bound apprentices at 9 or 10. The Workhouse is an old building, in the town, with accommodation for 200 persons. There are about 20 beds in each room, chiefly of flocks and provided each with 2 blankets and a rug. Some beds have sheets. The dormitories and other apartments are kept with great neatness, and the Poor are well dressed, clean and orderly. The house is whitewashed and the bedclothes scoured once a year.
Table of diet: Breakfast—every day, milk pottage and bread. Dinner—Sunday, mutton, potatoes, broth, bread and beer; Monday, Friday, rice milk, bread and beer; Tuesday, flour dumplings and beer; Wednesday, bread, cheese and beer; Thursday, potatoes, broth, bread and beer; Friday, rice milk, bread and beer; Saturday, drink pottage and bread. Supper—Sunday, bread and broth; Thursday, bread and broth or beer only; other days, milk pottage and bread. Of wheaten cake 3lbs. are divided into 8 parts, viz., 2 parts of 7oz. each for 2 men, 4 of 6oz. for 6 women, and 2 of 5oz. for 2 children. 1lb. of rice, with 10oz. of sugar, with cloves, pepper, salt, etc., are allowed to 20 persons. Each adult has 14oz. and each child 8oz. of paste for dumplings. 20 persons have 1 gallon of milk for milk pottage, and each person has one-third of a quart (ale measure) of beer at dinner except on Saturdays. Adults have 6oz. of cheese each, children 4oz. The cheese is worth about 4½d. per lb. At Easter and Whitsuntide veal and bacon are provided for dinner and roast beef at Christmas, and at each of these seasons each pauper receives 1lb. of spiced cake. The prime meat is purchased for the house; every person finds his own knife and fork, and is served with dinner in the dining room. In general, the stores when delivered are carried up to the lodging rooms. No.24, however, of the rules observed in the Workhouse, adopted on May 9th, 1771, requires "that all the Poor in this house who are able to attend prayers, sit decently at their meals, avoid talking and make no attempt to go out of the dining-room till thanks are returned; and, in default of any of these particulars, to lose their next meal"; and No.29 provides for the punishment of any person carrying any bread, cheese, or other provisions (without leave from the master) out of the common dining-room. It is but justice to add that Mr. Linsley, the master of the Workhouse, is in every respect highly qualified for the very arduous and complicated duties of his important office, in the discharge of which he has happily been able to render those under him contented, without permitting them to be idle, and to provide for their wants without losing sight of economy. His humane disposition, and firm, even temper, make him beloved, respected and obeyed with cheerfulness, and (what is seldom to be met with in houses of this description) the Poor under his care live in perfect harmony among themselves. Their earnings amount to about £150 a year, exclusive of work performed for the immediate use of the house. The following other persons also receive relief, viz.: Regular Out-Poor, 415; casual Out-Poor, 251; militia men's families, 158.

 

 

1812 Leeds Workhouse Silver Shilling Token

-------------------

 

 

 

A Victorian cast iron plaque showing a

family is devestated by the death of a

goose .. the family's one and only asset.

This was real poverty in that era.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

By the same token the inner

workings of a 1750's Fusee gold and silver pocket watch found near the Apprentice House, with a metal detector, gives an idea of the affluence of most of the Yorkshire Mill Owners.

 

 

 

The Outer Sterling Silver case

had been removed and the less

valuable inners discarded.

 

- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -

A silver clog clip with Tulip design

- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -

Silver Christening Spoons

1804 (H) George III customs tax paid

 

1807 (M) George III customs tax paid

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Tokens found in April 2015

 

 

tokens found on 22nd August 2017

 

An 1806 George III halfpenny found at

the Apprentice House next to a tree root

which kept in in excellent condition.

1P

02

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

6.6 grams

23x16x4

1P

03

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

6.3 grams

21x18x3

1P

04

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

12.4 grams

22x19x5

1P

05

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

21.6 grams

31x23x5.5

1P

06

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

8.9 grams

21x19x3

1P

07

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

10.6 grams

21x19x4

1P

08

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

11.4 grams

22x17x5

1P

09

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

14.8 grams

21x21x5

1P

10

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

15.1 grams

25x20x5

1P

11

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

19.8 grams

22x22x8

1P

12

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

13.8 grams

23x20x4.5

1P

13

Ring &

 Pellet

Blank

13.8 grams

23x20x4.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

01

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

11.7 grams

23x20x4

+

02

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

8.1 grams

22x20x2.5

+

03

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

13.5 grams

23x22x4

+

04

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

13.5 grams

23x20x4.5

+

05

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

10.9 grams

18x17x4.5

+

06

 + Cross

5 pellets

Blank

7.3 grams

18x17x4

+

07

 + Cross

4 pellets

worn smooth

Blank

17.2 grams

24x20x4

+

08

+ Cross

4 pellets

worn smooth

Blank

14.2 grams

24x22x4

+

09

+ Cross

pellets

worn blank

Blank

11.1 grams

24x22x3

+

10

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

5.0 grams

23x19x2.5

+

11

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

7.0 grams

19x17x4

+

12

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

16.2 grams

26x23x5

+

13

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

12.8 grams

26x22x4

+

14

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

17.4 grams

25x24x4

+

15

+ Cross

5 pellets

Letters

9.3 grams

20x19x5

+

16

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

27.0 grams

27x26x6

+

17

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

10.8 grams

20x19x5

+

18

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

5.1 grams

15x15x4

+

19

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

7.3 grams

19x18x3.5

+

20

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

8.2 grams

18x17x4

+

21

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

12.5 grams

22x22x4

+

22

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

14.4 grams

20x19x5.5

+

23

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

7.2 grams

18x16x4

+

24

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

In the safe

keeping

of JetSkiJohn

+

25

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

15.0 grams

20x19x5.5

+

26

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

21.2 grams

28x25x5

+

27

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

5.5 grams

22x19.5x2

+

28

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

14.2 grams

22x21x5

+

29

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

5.9 grams

21.5x21x2.5

+

30

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

10.1 grams

18.5x17.5x5

+

31

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

12.1 grams

18.5x18.5x5

+

32

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

3.6 grams

14x12.5x4

+

33

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

7.0 grams

18x16x4

+

34

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

9.2 grams

22x20x4

+

35

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

19.6 grams

25x25x5

+

36

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

16.3 grams

23x23x4.5

+

37

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

21.8 grams

30x26x4.5

+

38

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

8.1 grams

25x25x3

+

39

+ Cross

4 pellets

Blank

8.8 grams

19x19x7

         
         
 

x

01

X Cross

5 pellets

Blank

7.3 grams

18 x 17.5 x 4

x

02

X Cross

5 pellets

Blank

13.7 grams

22 x 21 x 6

         

5

01

5 pellets

Blank

20.3 grams

23 x 22 x 7

         

 

+

L1

Very Large

 Eyed Cross

Embossed

45.8 grams

38x33x6.5

+

L2

Large Cross

very worn

Blank

20.4 grams

28x26x5

+

L3

 

Very Large

with single hole

 

Blank

67.6 grams

28x28x6.5

         
         
 

6P

01

6 pellets

Blank

16.0 grams

22x21x5

6P

02

6 pellets

Blank

8.1 grams

21x20x2.5

6P

03

6 pellets

Blank

11.9 grams

21x21x4.5

6P

04

6 pellets

crude heavy design

Blank

18 grams

24x22x6

6P

05

6 pellets

Blank

5.8 grams

19x19x2.5

6P

06

6 pellets

crude heavy design

Blank

21.8 grams

23x22x8

6P

07

6 pellets

badly corroded

Blank

7.9 grams

20x16x5

6P

08

6 pellets

crude heavy design

Blank

19.6 grams

21x21x7.5

6P

09

6 pellets

crude heavy design

Blank

14.8 grams

20x20x6.5

6P

10

6 pellets

crude heavy design

Blank

14.8 grams

20x20x6.5

         
 

SW

01

5 Petal

Flower

Blank

12.8 grams

23x20x4.5

SW

02

13 Armed

Spiral

2 small eyeholes

Blank

19.9 grams

25x25x4

SW

03

Pizza

8 slice

Blank

10.9 grams

26x26x3

SW

04

Pizza

8 slice

Blank

17.7 grams

25x25x4.5

SW

05

Petal Edge

13 petals

Blank

26.3 grams

31x29x4.5

SW

06

Letters

Blank

25.7 grams

28x28x5

SW

07

10 past 5

Blank

12.2 grams

23x19x5.5

SW

08

Sword

Blank

5.9 grams

21x21x2.5

SW

09

5 Petal

Flower

Blank

13.8 grams

23x22x4.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HM

01

Hallmark

Young king's head

Embossed

HM

02

Pseudo

Hallmark

Letters

Embossed

18.5 grams

23x21x7

HM

03

Pseudo

Hallmark

Letters

Embossed

23.9 grams

23x23x6.5

HM

04

Pseudo

Hallmark

Letters

Embossed

26.4 grams

28x26x6

HM

05

Fantasy

Embossed

21.2 grams

28x25x5

HM

06

Royal

Crown

Embossed

27.0 grams

27x25x6

HM

07

Royal

Crown

I.M

35.9 grams

30 x 30 x 7

HM

08

Royal

Crown

Embossed

15.6 grams

27 x 28 x 4

HM

09

Royal

Crown

Blank

35.1 grams

29 x 27.5 x7

HM

10

Royal

Crown

Blank

34.9 grams

28.5 x 28 x 7

HM

11

Royal

Crown

Blank

26.7 grams

32.5 x 31.5 x 6

         
         
         
 

##

#1

Checks

 A similar token was

 found at Bentham Mills

ODOO7

Blank

12.2 grams

21x20x4

##

#2

Checks

Blank

18.2 grams

22x22x6

 

##

#3

Checks

Blank

11.3 grams

23x23x4

##

#4

Checks

Blank

9.5 grams

21x20x3.5

##

#5

Checks

Blank

11.0 grams

20x20x4

##

#6

Checks

Blank

11.0 grams

19x19x5

##

#7

Checks

Blank

22.3 grams

22x22x7

##

#8

Checks

hole for cord

Blank

6.0 grams

18x18x2.5

##

#9

Checks

Blank

13.5 grams

29x26x3

##

10

Checks

Blank

15.8 grams

21x20x5.5

##

11

Checks

Blank

12.8 grams

25x25x4

##

12

Checks

2 small holes

Blank

12.1 grams

34x30x3

##

13

Checks

Blank

16.0 grams

20x20x6

##

14

Checks

Blank

4.9 grams

18x16x2.5

##

15

Checks

Blank

10.8 grams

20x18x5

##

16

Checks

Blank

15 grams

21x21x5.5

##

17

Checks

Blank

11.2 grams

24x21x4

##

18

Checks

Blank

15.5 grams

24x19x5

##

19

Checks

Image

16.9 grams

23x21x5

##

20

Checks

Blank

13.6 grams

21.5x20x5

##

21

Checks

small hole

Blank

15.1 grams

26x25x4.5

##

22

Checks

Blank

13.4 grams

23x22x4.5

##

23

Checks

thick & heavy

Blank

26.5 grams

23x23x8

##

24

Checks

Blank

14.7 grams

22x21x5.5

##

25

Checks

Blank

6.6 grams

17x17x4.5

##

26

Checks

Blank

8.0 grams

21x20x3

##

27

Checks

Blank

8.6 grams

19x18x4.5

##

28

Checks

Blank

14.5 grams

28x25x4

##

29

Checks

Blank

17.5 grams

25x25x6

##

30

Checks

Blank

12.1 grams

20.5x20x5

##

31

Checks

Blank

16.1 grams

25x23x5

##

32

Checks

Blank

10.3 grams

26x23x3

##

33

Checks

Blank

11.2 grams

19x18x5

##

34

Checks

Blank

13.6 grams

20x20x5.5

##

35

Checks

Blank

12.6 grams

20x20x5

##

36

Checks

Blank

5.8 grams

17x15x3

##

37

Checks

Blank

30.2 grams

35x31x5

##

38

Checks

Blank

16.0 grams

23x21x5

##

39

Checks

Blank

10.9 grams

21x20x4

##

40

Checks

Blank

21.6 grams

23x22x7

##

41

Checks

Blank

6.1 grams

20x15x4

##

42

Checks

Blank

8.6 grams

25x24x3.5

##

43

Checks

Blank

16.9 grams

22 x 22 x 6.5

##

44

Checks

Blank

3.6 grams

18 x 16 x 3

         
         
 

Hybrid Pellet and Checkers

H

01

3 pellet

checker

hybrid

blank

8.8 grams

23x23x2.5

H

02

3 pellet

checker

hybrid

blank

11.6 grams

25x24x3

H

03

3 pellet

checker

hybrid

blank

18.9 grams

27x23x5

 

M

01

Blank

Embossed

4.7 grams

19x17x2.5

M

02

Blank

Blank

14.1 grams

22x20x5

M

03

Faint Letters

Embossed

10.2 grams

24x20x4.5

M

04

Faint Letters

Embossed

6.7 grams

23x20x3

M

05

Unreadable

Found at

Little Patrick Mill

Blank

11.9 grams

23x22

M

06

Unreadable

Found at

Little Patrick Mill

Blank

14.5 grams

25x25

M

07

Faint Letters

Embossed

11.3 grams

19.5x19x4.5

M

08

Faint Letters

Embossed

5.8 grams

24.5x20x2

M

09

Unreadable

Found at

West End Mills

Blank

11.7 grams

22x20x3.5

         
 

AN

01

Anchor

Blank

13.7 grams

21x21x4

AN

02

Anchor

Blank

17.1 grams

24x22x4.5

 

Medieval Lead Trading Tokens

found at Knaresborough Site

Approx 20ml diameter x 2mm thick these tokens are much

 older than those found at West House Mills. c.17th Century

 

 

Medieval token found higher up Washburn Valley by Ged Dodd

med

01

Forked Linear Cross with 8 pellets

Stylized

Celtic

6.8 grams

24x23x3.5

Thought to be a Celtic design token modelled after a druid

coin, 1610 ~ 1658. Very rare. One has been seen one drawn

 on a head stone marked 1617, with the 4 dots, 8 is unique.

From the time of James 1, Charles 1, or Oliver Cromwell

                
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Trading Tokens found by Neil Jones  8th Feb 2015

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

 

Bed & Breakfast

Scaife Hall Farm, Blubberhouses

Contact Christine, Hardisty Hill,

 Blubberhouses, Otley. LS21 2PL
Telephone  01943 880354

 

 

 

 

 

Supportive Friends of

The PeaceHavens Project.

 

 

   

With my appreciation to Johnny StormCrow, JetSkiJohn

& Jackie Smith, and Neil Jones for their assistance.

 

 

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