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Copyright 2020 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project
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Russian Flax and Hemp Bale Seals found in

Whitehaven & Egremont, Cumbria

 Whitehaven has been a small harbour and fishing village from 13th century or earlier.   Expansion began in mid-17th century with building of piers by Lowthers 1632-4 and 1679-81 and granting of market charter 1660. By the 1680s it had grown rapidly, expanding from village of c.30 households in early 17th century to a town of over 1,000 inhabitants by 1685, which more than doubled to 2,281 by 1696. Sir John Lowther had laid out grid of streets by 1680s, making Whitehaven the earliest planned new town in post-medieval Britain.

  The mill in Catherine Street, (Cumberland Barracks Mill) was a flour mill for some years, but it was actually built as a flax-spinning mill in 1809, by Joseph Bell. Whitehaven had grown fast in the eighteenth century, sustained by a solid export trade of coal to Ireland. Ship-building had gone on there since the seventeenth century, to provide and maintain the collier fleet, and had expanded until Whitehaven ships were bought by ship-owners all over the North-West. Ships’ carpenters, ropers, block-makers and anchor-founders crop up regularly in the Parish Registers, but no one was making sail canvas, a gap in the market if ever there was one. Sail canvas was made in Lancashire, in Lancaster, Warrington and Kirkham.
   Two big firms had the Kirkham canvas industry pretty much to themselves, the Hornby brother and Langton Birley. The Hornby's were looking to expand, building flax mill at Low Bentham in 1785. In Whitehaven, in partnership with Joseph Bell, they opened a Sail Cloth Manufactory in Scotch Street in 1784, trading as Hornby and Bell until joined by Henry Birley, nephew of the Kirkham factory owners, at some time by 1793.
   The partners opened Low Mill, on the River Ehen, and enlarged the product range to include huckaback (familiar today as roller towelling) and haberdashery. See Egremont section below.
   In 1800, John Marshall, already set to become the biggest linen manufacturer in the country, based in Leeds, was shown round the factory and was impressed by it size, with its 1500 spindles, although he thought the machinery 'rough and clumsy'. Too much should not be read into that as Marshall, as an inventor and owner of patents for flax-spinning machinery, may have had an axe to grind.
    Eighteenth century business partnerships were fluid, to say the least. Partnerships formed and reformed with different partners, sometimes lasting for a very short time; men traded on their own or with others both at the same time. By 1805, the Hornbys had left to concentrate on their Bentham factories, the new building in High Bentham being a big success. Joseph Bell was also ready to strike out again, and formed a new partnership with John Bragg. Bragg was a Quaker, owned a bleachfield at Egremont and was a 'Russia Merchant' i.e. he imported flax and hemp, which made him an ideal partner. Together they took a site in Castle Meadows, paying a rent of 18s.5d. a year, and built the mill in 1809. By 1810 they were advertising for labour, for a man to attend the steam engine, for overseers and instructors for the apprentices, and for 'stout boys to swingle and dress flax'.
   All these new flax-spinning factories, producing canvas yarn, were part of the national war effort, equipping the Navy and the merchant marine. After 1815, the bottom fell out of the market and most of the smaller establishments closed down. Joseph Bell’s factory continued until he died in 1832, leaving "all that my Linen or Flax Manufactory … situate in or near Castle Meadows, and all that my newly erected Warehouse in Irish Street" to his three sons, Joseph, John and Daniel. The Catherine Street mill lasted as a flax mill until 1853, a monument to Joseph Bell, who started small as a Lancashire handicraftsman, and finished by leaving Whitehaven one of its major landmarks. Catherine Mill is a Grade 2 listed building of national importance as the earliest mill to contain a central engine house and what’s more, it was fire-proofed. Flax and hemp had been grown in the North West for centuries, but it was mainly hemp that was grown in West Cumberland, for rope making. The earliest linen factory known in the North West dates from 1742. It was at Lowther (Westmorland).

          Seals found at Whitehaven - Egremont finds are lower down the list

#

OBVERSE click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Finder

notes

IDS
2085

 Memel City Tax Seal of Frederick II, the Great (1740 -1786).

FR Fridericus Rex / BUREAU DE MEMEL - Memel's Office.

Prussian eagle / REGIE DES DROITS DU ROI - King's Rights.

Billy Vaughan
Sanwith
Whitehaven
Cumbria

 

Inspectors & Posts
Whitehaven District

 Arekhav      1784 N309

  Babonin.T    1803   76

 Bobrov       1799    9

   Bocharov.?   1820  221

 Chegodae.F   1764 N184

 Dolgopolov.M 1783  130

 Eremeev.I.M  1825  186

 Fokin.F      1787 EGRO6

 Ivanov.E     1798 EGR04

 Karalev      1798   ??

 Kostin.S     1786   76

 Kozakov      1766    9

 Kozlov.E     1798   30

 Kozlov.Ya    1788   58

 Krasikov.F   1796   17

 Lakin.V      1828  N93

 Levshev.M    1783   37

 Lotarev      1833   70

 Merkulov.M   1798   28

 Mezinin      1784   76

 Rastrepaev.I 179?   73

 Simanov.M    1811   82

 Sinyakov.S   1796   66

 Skvortsov.?  1821   69

 Soloukhin.D  1804   45

 Timofeev.S   1798   34

 Tomilin.T    1793   29

 Ul'yanov.S   1797   10

 Vasilin.A    1782  328

 

- - - - - - - - - -

Posts / Inspectors / #
Whitehaven District

 

   9 Bobrov        WH18

   9 Kozakov       WH17

  10 Ul'yanov.S   EGR03

  11 Fokin.F      EGR06

  17 Krasikov.F    WH23

  28 Merkulov.M    WH08

  29 Tomilin.T     WH11

  30 Kozlov.E     EGR05

  34 Timofeev.S    WH16

  37 Levshev.M     WH03

  45 Soloukhin.D   WH22

  58 Kozlov.Ya     WH05

  66 Sinyakov.S    WH12

  69 Skvortsov.?   WH10

  70 Lotarev       WH01

  73 Rastrepaev.I  WH09

  75 Ivanov.E     EGR04

  76 Babonin.T     WH06

  76 Mezinin       WH26

  76 Kostin.S      WH07

  82 Simanov.M     WH25

 N93 Lakin.V       WHO4

 130 Dolgopolov.M  WH02

 186 Eremeev.I.M   WH27

 N184 Chegodae.F   WH19

 221 Bocharov.?    WH14

 N309 Arekhav      WH24

  328 Vasilin.A     WH13

  ?? Karalev      EGR02

IDS
2097

X (non Riga)
Crossed Keys
B (Badstuben)
4 (four band)

blank

non Riga
Libau
or Memel
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
 
WH
01
ЛД=LD
ЛОТАРЕВЪ
(LOTAREV)
H70
SPB
NP._1
I.P.
1833
70
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
02
ДM =DM
М.ДОЛГОПОЛОВЪ
(M.DOLGOPOLOV)
N130
SPB
HPRH
1783
T
N130
post
(Rein Hemp)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
03
ЛД=LD
М.ЛЕВШЕВЪ
(M.LEVSHEV)
H37
NP
ФК12H
1796
key fish
37
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
04
ЛД=LD
В.ЛАКИНЪ
(V.LAKIN)
N93
NP
MC12H
1828
N93
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
05
ЛД=LD
Я.КОЗЛОВЪ
(Ya.KOZLOV)
H58
NP
ПАС12K
1788
N93
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
06
ЛД=LD
T:БAБOHИHЬ
(T.BABONIN)
H76
NP
BCI12K
1803
76
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
07
ПД=PD
C.KOCTИHЬ
(S.KOSTIN)
H76
SPB
CTRH
1786
76
post
(Rein Hemp)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
08
ЛД=LD
М.МЕРКУЛОВ
(M.MERKULOV)
H28
NP
МѲ12H
1798
28
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
09
ЛД = LD
И.PACTPEПAEB
(I.RASTREPAEV)
H73
NP
DH12K
179?
73
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
10
ПД=PD
?:СКВОРЦОВЪ
(?.SKVORTSOV)
H69
SPB
BKRH
1821
69
post
(Rein Hemp)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
11
ЛД = LD
Т.ТОМІЛИНЪ
(T.TOMILIN)
H29
NP
ФК12Н
1793
29
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria
WH
12
ЛД = LD
С:СИНЯКОВЪ
(S.SINYAKOV)
H66
NP
BCI12Н
1796
66
post
(flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
13

ЛД = LD
А.ВАСИЛИН
(A.VASILIN)
H328

NP
ПC12H
17
82

328
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
14

ПД = PD
?.БОЧАРОВ
(?.BOCHAROV)
H221

SPB
CGFRH
1820

221
post
(Rein Hemp)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH

15

ПОРТА/САНКТ/ПТЕР/БУРГС
PORT SANKT PETERBURGS

17*91  Ю Russian Arms T

When blank there is a

Ю symbol on the

 obverse and a T for tax.

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
16

ЛД=LD
С.ТИМОФЕЕВ
(S.TIMOFEEV)
H34
NP
АK12H
1798
34
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
17

ЛД=LD
КОЗАКОВЪ
(KOZAKOV)
H9
NP
CT9H
1766
9
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
18

? ПД = PD
БОБРОВЪ
(BOBROV)
H9
? SPB
AKRH
1779
9
post
(Rein Hemp)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
19

ЛД=LD
ЛАРИОНОВЪ
(LARIONOV)
N184
N:P
MП12H
1764
N184
post
(flax)

Davy Jones
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
20

17*84 (Riga)

Ю (seal) Eagle Т (Tax)

 РИЖСКОИ:ПОГРА:ПОРТ:TA

RIGA BORDER PORT CUSTOMS

State Arms Tax Seal.

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

 ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ ТАМОЖЕННАЯ СТРАЖА (Border Customs Guard) "On August 5, 1827, Emperor Nicholas I approved the Regulation on the formation of a border customs guard (ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ ТАМОЖЕННАЯ СТРАЖА) based on military principles in Russia. Originally created exclusively to combat smuggling on the western border, by the end of the 1830s, the guards began to protect the state border of the empire, within the border territory of the empire to solve the problems of protecting its territorial, military, economic and political interests, quarantine supervision, detention of fugitives, deserters and tramps. At the same time, the range of tasks of the border guards has expanded from decade to decade. Since 1835, the customs border guard first became known as the "border guard" (ПОГРАНИЧНАЯ СТРАЖА) throughout the entire western border of the empire."

WH
21

x
Crossed Keys
Ф (F)

no photo

blank

Imitation Riga
(fein flax)
Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
22

ЛД=LD
Д.СОЛОУХИ
(D.SOLOUKHIN)
H45
NP
CH12H
1804
45
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
23

ЛД=LD
Ф.КРАСИКОВ
(F.KRASIKOV)
H17
NP
DH12H
1796
17
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
24

ДѲ = DF
АРЕХАВЪ
(AREKHAV)
N392
NP
ПС12H
1784
N392
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
25

ЛД
М.СИМАНОВ
(M.SIMANOV)
H82
NP
IB12H
1811
82
post
(flax)

Davy Jones
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
26
IDS 1703

ДД = DD
MEЗІНIHЬ
(MEZININ)
H76

SPB
CFKRH
1784

Anchor base

76

post

(Rein Hemp)

Davy Jones
Moresby
Whitehaven
Cumbria

WH
27

ПД = PD

ИМ.ЕРЕМЕЕВЪ
(IM.EREMEEV)

H186

SPB

ИФRH

1825

186

post
(rein hemp)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven

WH
28

ЛД=LD
Ф.КРАСИКОВ
(F.KRASIKOV)
H17
NP
ПС12H
1793
17
post
(flax)

Billy Vaughan
Whitehaven
Cumbria

             
             

 

Seal finds from Egremont.

In the 1800's Egremont was thriving, Tanneries, Corn Mills, Sailcloth Mills, Flint Mills and Flax Mills had all been built along the River Ehen from which they obtained their motive power. Whitehaven based Joseph Bell formed a new partnership with John Bragg. Bragg was a Quaker, owned a bleachfield at Egremont and was a 'Russia Merchant' i.e. he imported flax and hemp, which made him an ideal partner. Together they took a site in Castle Meadows, paying a rent of 18s.5d. a year, and built the mill in 1809. By 1810 they were advertising for labour, for a man to attend the steam engine, for overseers and instructors for the apprentices, and for 'stout boys to swingle and dress flax'. Low Mill was operated by one James Elliott and by 1808 was being run on steam. Other mills were Greendyke flax mill built c.1760 and High Mill, built as fulling mill in the 1760's and converted to a flax mill by 1861.

#

OBVERSE click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Finder

EGR

01

+ orthodox cross
crossed keys
2 second sort

blank

True Riga
(flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

02

ЛД=LD
КАРАЛЕВЪ
(KARALEV)
???
N:P
BCI12K
1798
???
post
(krown flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

03

ЛД=LD
С.УЛЬЯНОВ:
(S.UL'YANOV)
H10
N:P
?P12H
1797
10
post
(flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

04

ЛД=LD
Е.ИВАНОВЪ
(E.IVANOV)
H75
N:P
EC9H
1798
75
post
(flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

05

ЛД=LD
E.KOЗЛOB
(T.KOZLOV)
H30
N:P
ИЧ12K
1798
30
post
(flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

06

ЛД=LD
Ф.ФОКИНЪ
(F.FOKIN)
H11
N:P
LGK12K
1787
11
post
(flax)

Thomas Morris
Egremont
Cumbria

EGR

07

Cross quartered
+ shield with
1/1/1/1 annulets
12K
GH
Baltic States
(Krown flax)

Ste Murphy
Egremont
Cumbria

             
             
             
             
             
             
             

 

 

The PeaceHavens Project

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Copyright 2020 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project
Click here for the terms
of free copy & share &
supporting your Project