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The PeaceHavens Project

A field handbook by Ged Dodd - Project Director

Identifying 18th-19th Century

Russian Flax & Hemp Seals

In the 18th & 19th centuries, Russia was the world's greatest exporter of flax and hemp plants with the UK Industrial Revolution being Russia's major customer.

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   The Cyrillic to English Alphabet

А

A

 

К

K

 

Ц

TS

 

Б

B

 

Л

L

 

Ч

CH

 

В

V

 

M

M

 

Ш

SH

 

Г

G

 

H

N

 

Щ

SHCH

 

Д

D

 

O

O

 

Ы

Y

 

Е

E

 

П

P

 

Я

YA

 

Ё

Ё

 

Р

R

 

Ю

YU

 

Э

EH

 

С

S

 

Ь

apostrophe

Ж

ZH

 

T

T

 

Ъ

end of male name

З

Z

 

m

T

 

Ѣ

E

 

И

I

 

У

U

 

e

E

 

Й

J

 

Ѵ

И

 

Ф

F

 

I

I

 

X

KH

 

Ѳ

F (Th)

 

 

 

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         * Stars Are Very Important *

   At one time the stars * were considered to be just randomly placed, gap fillers, until we had thousands of seals to examine and then it became obvious they were used as SEPARATORS between blocks of letters.

  The first image shows *  NP  *  IMK12H *  1777  *

Another important role for a star * is when it replaces a Post Number on the obverse of a seal, directly under the name and this always indicates it is a hemp seal.

 

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Identifying Lead Flax Seals

 

Obverse

Reverse

Before 1829 (NP)

 

First Line is Inspector Designation

ЛД = Flax Inspector

Second and third line is inspector name

Ф:КОC = F:KOS
ТИНЬ = TIN (F.Kostin)

H32  = the post number.

 

 

 

* NP * means flax for all seals.

AP = Agent initials

12H = 12 flax heads in a bale. (Could be 6H, 9H or 12H  ..  or

6K, 9K, 12K for high quality K (Kron) Crown grade  in the bale.

 * 1799 * = date of inspection