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  This site is an ongoing project involving the finding and identification of 18/19th century Russian Lead Flax Bale & Hemp Bale Seals found in the UK.   Flax seals have the designation ЛД (LD) (Flax Inspection) or ДЛ (DL)  Hemp seals have the designation ПД (PD) (Hemp Inspection) or ДП (DP)

Whereas Flax Bale seals are found primarily in the North of England in huge quantities, nearly a thousand at Bentham Mills alone, because that's where the Industrial flax based revolution took place, it is noticeable that the hemp seals occur randomly throughout the length and breadth of the country in ones and twos, because hemp bales were needed in much smaller quantities by cottage rope making industries, spread over a greater time span , however more hemp was exported than flax ..but in later years hemp bales were not sealed.

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Project List of all known Flax and Hemp Post Numbers on Russian Lead Seals.

The information here is derived from seals found by and submitted to the Project by metal detectorists - and is constantly updating.

*

   all seals that have a * replacing a post number are hemp seals.

*       25       50       75       100       125       150       175       200       225       250       275       300       325       350       375       400       425       450    
1       26       51       76       101       126       151       176       201       226       251       276       301       326       351       376       401       426       451    
2       27       52       77       102       127       152       177       202       227       252       277       302       327       352       377       402       427       452    
3       28       53       78       103       128       153       178       203       228       253       278       303       328       353       378       403       428       453    
4       29       54       79       104       129       154       179       204       229       254       279       304       329       354       379       404       429       454    
5       30       55       80       105       130       155       180       205       230       255       280       305       330       355       380       405       430       455    
6       31       56       81       106       131       156       181       206       231       256       281       306       331       356       381       406       431       456    
7       32       57       82       107       132       157       182       207       232       257       282       307       332       357       382       407       432       457    
8       33       58       83       108       133       158       183       208       233       258       283       308       333       358       383       408       433       458    
9       34       59       84       109       134       159       184       209       234       259       284       309       334       359       384       409       434       459    
10       35       60       85       110       135       160       185       210       235       260       285       310       335       360       385       410       435       460    
11       36       61       86       111       136       161       186       211       236       261       286       311       336       361               411       436       461    
12       37       62       87       112       137       162       187       212       237       262       287       312       337       362               412       437       462    
13       38       63       88       113       138       163       188       213       238       263       288       313       338       363               413       438       463    
14       39       64       89       114       139       164       189       214       239       264       289       314       339       364               414       439       464    
15       40       65       90       115       140       165       190       215       240       265       290       315       340       365               415       440       465    
16       41       66       91       116       141       166       191       216       241       266       291       316       341       366               416       441       466    
17       42       67       92       117       142       167       192       217       242       267       292       317       342       367               417       442       467    
18       43       68       93       118       143       168       193       218       243       268       293       318       343       368               418       443       468    
19       44       69       94       119       144       169       194       219       244       269       294       319       344       369               419       444       469    
20       45       70       95       120       145       170       195       220       245       270       295       320       345       370               420       445       470    
21       46       71       96       121       146       171       196       221       246       271       296       321       346       371               421       446       471    
22       47       72       97       122       147       172       197       222       247       272       297       322       347       372               422       447       472    
23       48       73       98       123       148       173       198       223       248       273       298       323       348       373               423       448       473    
24     49   74     99     124     149   174   199   224   249 274 299   324   349 374 424 449 474

 

    Both flax and hemp were major agricultural crops in post medieval Russia. Hemp was grown in the south, and flax in the north. Encyclopaedia Britannica says one of the major exports of the English Muscovy Company (founded in the second half of the 16th century) was hemp.

     According to many textile sources, the archaeological record of hemp and nettle fabric is confused by the fact that archaeologists, not being able to tell hemp, nettle and flax cloth apart without chemical testing, use the term 'linen' to refer to any fabric spun and woven from vegetable fibres. (Apparently, however, Czech archaeologists call all such fabrics 'hemp'). In old paintings it is not possible to distinguish linen from hemp or nettle cloth.

     Both hemp and nettle have been used to make fabric since prehistoric times, as alternatives to flax, and processed similarly to flax. Hemp, with its fibres up to 12 feet long, produces a stronger thread than flax; and nettle produces a somewhat "finer and silkier" fabric than flax.

     Hemp can be either wet retted, by immersion in water such as a pond or stream, or dew retted, by laying in the fields. Once the fibre bundles appear white, they separate from the woody core, and divide easily into individual, finer fibres for their full length. When retting is complete the stems are dried, then broken with a 'breaker'. The fibres are separated using processes known as 'Scutching' (beating), then hanckled (combed) for spinning. Much like flax.

     While hemp can be harvested for either the fibre or the seeds, it appears that hemp for fibre needs to be harvested before it goes to seed; so different plots would be allocated for fibre production than for seed. The centuries-old method of hemp textile production involves . . . Harvesting after flowering but before the seeds set, when the stems are whitening at the base and the leaves are starting to drop. The fibre content is reduced and becomes coarser toward seed formation. Where it is desired to obtain fibre and seed the male plants are first collected by hand pulling, and the female plants are left to enable the seeds to ripen. There are lots more on hemp facts at the bottom of this page ...

 - - - - - - - - - - - -

 Russian Hemp Bale Seals Identified

 

 

The earliest known Russian Rein Hemp Bale Seal

IDS

1112

ЧИСТА (clean)
R

(Rein Hemp)

(crown)

No 1

1733
SPB

Crown Grade

No 1 Sort

1733
(Hemp)


 Deciphering RH Rein Hemp Seals 1737 - 1747.

The earliest dated lead seals are hemp seals with SPB, RH and a date.

 RH meaning Rein (Rhine) Hemp and not the usual inspector initials.

 (Rare seals with AH are thought to be Archangel seals.)

obverse

SPB
R:H
1747

 

 

 

 

 

 SPB = Used for hemp seals by all ports.
 R:H = REIN (RHINE) HEMP.
 1747 =
the date of inspection.

 

 On paper .. MR = Marienburg Rakitzer is used

 for Rhine Hemp but it is not on the lead seals

 

 reverse

always

blank

 

 THE REVERSE IS ALWAYS BLANK

 

 However there can be elaborate shapes in the form

 of ornate C or y shapes (not  letters) to either side

 of the initials RH on the obverse above the date.

  Notes:- variations are numerous.

   
 SPB R 1733 SPB RH 1737  SPB RH 1739  SPB RH 1741  SPB RH 1741  SPB RH 1741    
         
 SPB RH 1744 SPB RH 1746 SPB RH 17467          

 R (chista) clean HEMP SEALS ARE FROM 1733

 RH REIN HEMP SEALS ARE FROM 1737 - 1747

 

 

From our academic researcher Paul Cannon ..

 Here is a contemporary reference to what is probably a lead seal attached to hemp.

 It is from a document in the National Archives: from Robert Thornton, hemp merchant

 of Mark Lane. Receipt of letter from the Portsmouth Officers complaining of the heat in

 the delivery of hemp. Hemp or flax delivered in the summer season will always be very hot. The Prospero, Captain Adam Rigden, is delivering hemp which will doubtless be very hot.

 He has never known a Ropemaker complain of the  quality of the hemp and his hemp meets his contract so he asks that the Ropemaker should check the quality and that his ships

 should be immediately unloaded. The hemp has been well cured otherwise it would not have passed the Baraak at Riga, which is proved by the mark on the roundels.
The document is dated 7 July 1732. If the marked ‘roundels’ are indeed lead seals then

this date is close to the earliest dated seal so far recovered of 1737 for St Petersburg.

Riga is specifically referred to and I wonder if they are the plain crossed keys type.

 If so, then some of these at least, may be earlier than has been assumed.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   Ged Dodd adds that

None of these Riga seals have an inscription stating whether they

are hemp or flax ...and all known hemp seals carry the notation SPB or CПБ meaning

 St Petersburg .. but I believed this notation was a State Controlled Area used for all

hemp bales regardless of the port of dispatch .. which may have been via Konigsberg,

 Kronstadt, Libnau, Memel, Narva, Pernau, Reval, Riga, St Petersburg, or Tilsit.

- - - - - - - - - - -

 The following is another contemporary reference to the sealing of hemp from Paul Cannon.

 Under ‘Hemp’ in Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures, Charles Tomlinson (1854)

 [see https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433087555417;view=1up;seq=42 p15]
is the following: “……… and the work of sorting it into qualities and making it up into

bundles is performed by sworn agents called brackers, and by binders appointed by the government. To every bundle of hemp thus assorted there is attached a ticket with the

names of the selector, binder and owner, and the date and year. Every bundle has also a

lead seal affixed to it, on which is stamped the selector’s name on one side, and the sort

 of hemp and the time of selection on the other.”
From the above reference Tomlinson seems to be suggesting that by 1854, the bundles

 were labelled in two ways at the same time with:
1. a ticket with the names of the selector, binder and owner, and the date and year and
2. a lead sealaffixed to it, on which is stamped the selector’s name on one side, and the

 sort of hemp and the time of selection on the other.
What the ‘ticket’ was made of is not recorded but I am reminded of another contemporary reference of 1805,

which recorded the use of a ‘wooden tally’ inside hemp bales. See http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gJ8TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=

rakitzer&source=bl&ots=L-hYsst8dF&sig=jYIgQSGAOspXcPj5_4znTyHcdHk&hl=

en&sa=X&ei=F-tXVLajMcHH7AbOzoDQCw&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tally&f=false
The footnote at the bottom of page 195 records “*Some articles are stamped;

for instance, the casks with Tallow and Oil; Flax with a lead tally annexed by a string;

 Hemp in the inside of the bales by a wooden tally, with the bracker’s name thereon.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 Ged Dodd adds that

only Archangel continued to brack the hemp with lead seals after the 1830's as

faith in the quality of the hemp from the Baltic ports collapsed after frequent

complaints by merchants.   Wooden tallies have yet to be found in the UK ..

 

 Russian Flax Exports in tons

 

 Russian Hemp Exports in tons

Date

St.SB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Riga

Flax seals

before 1829

are stamped

NP, WK, WU

regardless of

port of export

Date

St.PB

 

 

Riga

Hemp seals

from 1740

to 1828 are

SPB, SP

regardless of

port of export

1825

7,324

23,701

1825

32,367

11,828

1826

7,432

23,383

1826

29,339

10,415

1827

11,192

24,758

1827

30,397

11,587

1828

10,884

21,377

1828

29,157

11,156

1829 6,685   24,394  All flax seals
from 1829
are stamped
SPB or CПБ
regardless of
port of export
1829 16,387   10,487

Hemp seals

from 1829 are

 H._1, or 2,

ПEH.1, 2, or 3

always with ПД

or PiLPD's

1830 9,365 19,807 1830 21,673 12,360
1831 4,774 18,195 1831 24,678 11,833
1832 8,472 20,533 1832 29,136 13,838
1833 5,589 25,474 1833 31,582 11,797

   

It is obvious from the tables that St Petersburg exported more hemp than flax and by the

same token Riga exported more flax than hemp .. giving StPB the major role for hemp.

 

    


 Deciphering SPB Hemp Seals 1740 - 1828 .. example

    SPB = state control used for all hemp seals at all ports until 1828

  after which the labelling of hemp seals was restricted to a very few

  ПИЛПД= PiLPD type seals 1829 -1840
  SPB was used by Non-Russian traders and CПБ by Russian traders.

obverse

ПД
И.ШEP
AПOBЬ
H31

(Hemp Seals must be ПД = PD not ЛД = LD)

 

 ПД = PD = Penkovy Dosmotr = Hemp Inspector
 И.ШEP = I.SHER (first part of the name).
 AПOBЬ = APOV (second part of the name).

 total name I.SHERAPOV (Ь is end of name).

  H31 = N31 = the post number.

 reverse

SPB

АЧРН

1818

SPB = Used for all hemp until 1828 by all ports.

АЧ = initials of the previous Grower/Owner/Agent

РН = Pass Hemp (or Puik Heide, Picked Tow)

1818 = date of inspection, grading or "brack".

  Notes:- variations (SPB also shortened to SP in rare cases)

        

      SPB HEMP SEALS ARE ON ALL SITES UP TO 1828 .. .        

 

 


 Deciphering CПБ Hemp Seals 1829 - 1850 .. example

  CПБ = state control used for all hemp seals at all ports from 1829 with ПД on the obverse.

   ПД = Penkovy Dosmotr = Hemp Inspector with grading as ПEH.1, 2, or 3 grade hemp.. 

   or  ПИЛПД = PiLPD = Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspector with a grading such

   as ЛЗ2H (LZ2H) where LZ are the Agents initials and 2H is 2nd Sort Tow (Heide).

obverse

ПД
П:CO
MOBЪ
N6

Hemp must be ПД = PD or ПИЛПД = PiLPD

 

 ПД = PD = Penkovy Dosmotr = Hemp Inspector
 П:CO
= P.SO (first part of the name).
 MOBЪ
= MOV (second part of the name).

 total name P.SOMOV (Ъ is end of name).

  N6 = N6 = the post number.

 reverse

CПБ
ПEH.1
ГБ
1834

 

CПБ = Used for all hemp from 1829 by all ports.

ПEH.1 = PEN.1 = Grade 1 Hemp.

ГБ (GB) = initials of previous Grower/Owner/Agent

1834 = date of inspection, grading or "brack".

  Notes:- variations are numerous.

        

  ПД (PD with) ПEH.1,2,3     ПД (PD with) ПEH.1,2,3        ПИЛПД 1, 2, 3 grade Tow        

 

 


 Deciphering SPB Hemp Seals 1829 - 1850 .. example

  (Note:- Normally SPB seals after 1829 are flax seals with 10,000 more flax than hemp)

  SPB = state control used for all hemp seals at all ports from 1829 with ПД on the obverse.

   ПД = Penkovy Dosmotr = Hemp Inspector with grading as П._1 or П._2 grade hemp.. 

   or  ПИЛПД = PiLPD = Hemp and Flax Dockside Inspector with a grading such

   as ЛЗ2H (LZ2H) where LZ are the Agents initials and 2H is 2nd Sort Tow (Heide).

obverse

ПД
З.БЕРО

БНЕВЪ

Ho.33

Hemp must be ПД = PD or ПИЛПД = PiLPD

 

 ПД = PD = Penkovy Dosmotr = Hemp Inspector
 
З.БЕРО = Z.BERO (first part of the name).
 
БНЕВЪ = BNEV (second part of the name).

 total name Z.BEROBNEV (Ъ is end of name).

  N6 = N6 = the post number.

 reverse

SPB
H._1
I.C.
1836

 

SPB = Used for some hemp from 1829 by all ports.

H._1 = H.1 = Grade 1 Hemp.

I.C. (I.S.) = initials of previous Grower/Owner/Agent

1836 = date of inspection, grading or "brack".

  Notes:- variations are numerous. and will be added shortly     

 

 Later hemp seals have ПД = hemp inspector or ДП on rare occasions.

 

 

"Ged's Hemp Seal Rules"

For seals having ПД = PD = hemp inspection on the obverse.

 

ПД = PD could also mean Portovy Dosmotr (Dockside Inspection) but it can only mean

Hemp Inspection when it appears in the form of the rule 5 examples shown below

and besides that all PD (Dockside Inspection) seals are proving to be hemp seals.

 

 

Rule 1) For ПД = PD to be Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection) on the obverse of

these lead hemp seals it must have a four letter hemp designation on the reverse..

 SPB hemp seals have ПД = hemp inspector .. their name .. and post number with

SPB (St Petersburg) .. Grower/Owner/Agent initials (AK) and RH (Rein Hemp) and date.

 

IDS

10

ПД = PD

T.KOЛПAKOB

(T.KOLPAKOV)

H30

SPB

AKRH

1799

30

post

 (Rein Hemp)

 

There are many examples of SPB Rein hemp seal with ПД = hemp inspector
(some ДA, ДB, ДИ, ДII,  ДM are also hemp seals ... and also flax seals).

AЧRH, AГRH, AKRH, BKRH, BORH, CCRH, CHRH, CKFRH, CУRH, CZRH, DHRH,
?CRH, ECRH, ERRH, FKRH, FMRH, FWRH, GKRH, HCRH, HЧRH, HHRH,
HPRH, H-PRH, HSRH, HШRH, IBRH, ICRH, ICZRH, IHRH, IMRH, IPRH,
IRRH, ISRH, ИЧRH, KGRH, MMRH, PBRH, PFRH, PMRH, ПSRH, RH, TBRH,
TKRH, TLRH, TNRH, ?FRH, ?GRH, ?HRH, ?MRH, ?OR
H, ?SRH

 

PH is Pass Hemp ... very short hemp but clean and  free of woody particles

AЧPH, AHPH, AШPH, CFPH, CHPH, CIFPH, ECPH, EKPH, FWPH, HKPH,

HПPH, HШPH, IHPH, IWPH, JHPH, KKPH, LGKPH, NKPH, ?WPH,

 

Some hemp seals have initial combinations other than those ending in RH (Rein Hemp)

AKA?, ANRHC, ANRA, ARHN, BHAO, BKAH, CЧPI, ДШIH, ГБ.IH, ГФKH,
HCRI, ICZAH, IBIH, IK:IH, IKIИ, IMAH, IMБR, IOБHH, ISAH, ЛЗIH, MCEI,
MPAH, ПШIH, ПWA
H, PKIN, SPHB, SRHB, TBIH, TBIN, THAH, TLAH,
TNAH, ?ШAH, WSAH, ?MZIR

 

Hemp seals with (LC, LZ) ЛЗIH, ЛЗ2H, ЛЗ3H could be
Lihuanian Czuken which is as Rein Hemp but less oily and soft
.

 

 

 

Rule 2) For ПД = PD to be Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection) on the obverse of the

lead hemp seals it must be confirmed with a grading of H._1, H._2, H._3,  first, second

and third grade hemp on the reverse of the seal above the Grower/Owner/Agent initials.

Note: H._1, H._2, H._3 with SPB are all hemp seals

but similar looking HoП._1,  HoП._2, HoП._3, with CПБ or SPB are all flax seals

 

IDS

28

ПД = PD

И.M.BAУЛИHЪ

 (I.M.VAULIN)

H21

SPB

H._2

I.H

1833

21

post

 (hemp)

IDS

136

ПД = PD

Л.CИЗA?EBЬ

(L.SIZA?EV)

H85

SPB

H._1

I.S.

1838

85

post

 (hemp)

 
Rule 3) Every SPB seal with a * (instead of post number) is a Hemp Seal

1811

w10

ПД = PD

H.CEЛИHЬ

(N.SELIN)

*

SPB

ДШ1H

1811

* post

1st grade or sort

 (hemp)

 see also Rule 4

 

 

Rule 4) For ПД = PD to be Penkovy Dosmotr (Hemp Inspection) on the obverse

of SPB lead hemp seals it must be confirmed with two letters, a single number 1,2 or 3

 and a  final letter (usually N) on the reverse. (Numbers 6, 9, 12 refer to flax seals)

SPB hemp seals with ПД = hemp inspector ..their name .. and post number with

SPB (St Petersburg) / Grower/Owner/Agent initials (EB) ..1N = 1st sort / date.

 

IDS

196

ПД=PD

E.CBИHЬИH

(E.SVIN'IN)

H??

SPB

EB1N

1798

IN is number 1

1st grade or sort

 

  Rule 5)
  Deciphering PiLPD Hemp Seals
1829 - 1841.

  PiLPD (ПИЛПД) seals were introduced in 1829 to cater for hemp

  as the vast majority of  SPB and CПБ seals after 1829 are flax.

  All the PiLPD (ПИЛПД) SPB and CПБ seals are hemp.

  PiLPD (ПИЛПД) = Penkovy i L'nyanoy Portovy Dosmotr

  = Hemp and Flax Port Inspector or "Dockside Inspectors."

IDS

1258

ПИЛПД (PiLPD)

М.КАЛТУШКИ
(M.KALTUSHKIN)
Ho 2

СПБ
Л.З.1.Н
1837

85 CUPMS:1999.53.18
N.E.Fife

 (hemp)

   

IDS

1259

ПИЛПД (PiLPD)

Н.СЕЛИНЪ
(N.SELIN)
Ho 1

СПБ
П.Ш 2.Н
1832

204 CUPMS:1999.56.8
N.E.Fife

 (hemp)

   
 

obverse

ПИЛПД
П.KAЛT

УШKИH

H9

 

 ПИЛПД = PiLPD =

 Hemp and Flax Port Dockside Inspector
 П.KAЛT
= P.KALT (first line of name)

 УШKИH = USHKIN (second line of name)

 total name = P.KALTUSHKIN

 H9 = N9 = post number

 

reverse

CПБ
ЛЗ2H
1833

 

 CПБ = and SPB used with PiLPD by all ports.

 ЛЗ (LZ) = initials of the previous Grower/Owner/Agent

 2Н = 2nd Sort Tow (Heide)

 1833 = date of inspection, grading or "brack".

reverse

SPB
ЛЗ1H
1819

 

  SPB = and CПБ  used with PiLPD by all ports.

 ЛЗ (LZ) = initials of the previous Grower/Owner/Agent

 1Н = 1st Sort Tow (Heide)

 1819 = date of inspection, grading or "brack".

Known PiLPD Seals

initial

reference number

date

location

initials

inspector

#

grade

area

FK 282 JS193 1839 JS PiLPD M.Kaltushkin 2 FK2H SPB (hemp)
FK 9 FALKM 2002.43.03 1833 Falkirk PiLPD P.Kaltushkin 3 FK2H SPB (hemp)
FK 8 FALKM 2002.43.02 1833 Falkirk PiLPD P.Kaltushkin 9 FK2H SPB (hemp)

FK

49 CUPMS: 1999.52.32

1833

NE Fife Mus

PLPD

N.Selin

1

FK2H

SPB (hemp)

ICB 205 CUPMS 1999.56.9 1831 NE Fife Mus PiLPD M.Kaltushkin 2 ICBN2 SPB
ICB 48 CUPMS 1999.52.31 1836 NE Fife Mus PiLPD P.Kaltushkin 3 ICBN2 SPB
ICB 52 CUPMS 1999.52.35 1839 NE Fife Mus PiLPD P.Kaltushkin 3 ICBN2 SPB

ICB

89 CUPMS: 1999.53.22

1833

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

P.Kaltushkin

3

ICBN2

CПБ

ICB

141 CUPMS 1999.54.32

183-

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

P.Kaltushkin

3

ICBN2

SPB

ICB

28 DUN:AH 2005-16.10

1831

Dundee

PiLPD

F.Sukhorukov

6

ICBN2

SPB

ICB

8 LCM: 90.36/12

1836

Lancaster

PiLPD

F.Sukhorukov

6

ICBN2

SPB

ЛЗ

221 CUPMS 1999.57.6

1831

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

R.Shustov

5

ЛЗ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ЛЗ

50 CUPMS: 1999.52.33

1832

NE Fife Mus

PLPD

?.Selin

1

ЛЗ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ЛЗ

85 CUPMS 1999.53.18

1831

NE.Fife

PiLPD

M.Kaltushkin

2

ЛЗ1H

CПБ (hemp)

ЛЗ

IDS589

1833

Durham

PiLPD

P.Kaltushkin

9

ЛЗ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ЛЗ

30 DUN:AHH2005-16.12

1831

Dundee

PiLPD

F.Sukhorukov

6

ЛЗ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ПШ

1829 KH01

1829

Kinghorn

PiLPD

?.Kaltushkin

??

ПШ2H

SPB (hemp)

ПШ

84 CUPMS: 1999.53.17

1833

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

V.Gorbunov

4

ПШ2H

SPB (hemp)

ПШ

86 CUPMS: 1999.53.19

1833

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

P.Kaltushkin

9

ПШ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ПШ

51 CUPMS: 1999.52.34

1841

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

I.Sheravskoi

3

ПШ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ПШ

204 CUPMS 1999.56.8

1832

NE Fife Mus

PLPD

N.Selin

1

ПШ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ПШ

IDS 1064

1835

Springfield

PiLPD

P.Shustov

5

ПШ2H

CПБ (hemp)

ПШ

143 CUPMS 1999.54.34

1835

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

F.Sukhorukov

6

ПШ2H

SPB (hemp)

                 

?H

87 CUPMS: 1999.53.20

1838

NE Fife Mus

PiLPD

D.Selin

9

?H2H

SPB (hemp)

                 

 

Hemp seals from Archangel

blank

SPB
A:H

1745

IDS

898

  SPB on seals before 1829 indicates Hemp .. A:H is probably Archangel Hemp

A П
CTEПAHOVЬ
(Archangel Port)
(STEPANOV)

APX ПOP
ПEHK:БPA

2 ГЛ P
1813

Archangel Port
PENK:BRA
2 GL R
1813

 Guilford Museum 2 GLMD:29.02   -    PENK:BRA  hemp inspection bracked

 

 

All the Bushev family were hemp inspectors from 1770 - 1834

 Bushev (hemp)

#171

Essex  ECRH

IDS480

1770

 Bushev (hemp)

#27

eBay PBRH

IDS220

1783

 Bushev.M (hemp)

#23

4 NLA (HER) 26398

?SRH

1797

 Bushev.I.D (hemp)

#72

45 JC 02

ИФAH

1816

 Bushev.I.M (hemp)

#31

39 AJPC 07

IMBR

182-

 Bushev.I.M (hemp)

#314

3 NML. 2007.21.3

FWRH

1826

 Bushev.I.M (hemp)

#67

PAS LIN-7BBEB5    H2

IDS494

1834

 Bushev.K.D (hemp) #179 Powerpoint, Bridport IDS1088 1822

 Bushev.I.V is a typo in Doctor John Sullivan's book for Bushev.I.M at #314

 

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More Economic Facts on Hemp c.1800

 Hemp formed an important article of export from St Petersburg and was sorted into ..

     1) Clean Hemp or First Sort

     2) Out Shot Hemp or Second Sort

     3) Half Clean Hemp or Third Sort

     and Hemp Codilla ...
Of the three sorts there was exported from St Petersburg annually two millions poods (32,00 tons)

the greatest part of which was shipped in English and American Vessels
  Hemp was brought` to the market of St Petersburg from the inside of Russia beyond Moscow by water by the means of the junction of different rivers and canals and the quality of the hemp depends very much on the country in which it is produced.  Hemp brought` from Karatshev is the best and next to this is that produced in Belev but the hemp from Gshatsk is considered inferior.

  As soon as the hemp is brought` down in the Spring or during the Summer it is immediately selected and made up in bundles which operations are sworn performed by selectors and binders (inspectors) appointed by the government for this purpose and it is a well known fact that this is done with great impartiality and exactness.

  A bundle of clean hemp weighs from 55 to 65 poods, a bundle of Out Shot 48 to 55 poods, a bundle of half clean hemp weighs from 40 to 45 poods. Binding of hemp is paid for at the rate of 2 rubles and 50 copecs for clean,  3 rubles for out shot,  and 1 ruble 50 copecs for half clean hemp per bundle, one half of which is paid by the seller and the other half by the purchaser .. charged by their agents.

  The expense of selecting hemp is fifty copecs per bercovitz (10 poods) and is the same for all sorts. To every bundle of assorted hemp is attached a ticket with the names of the selector binder and owner together with the date and year.. Also to every bundle (bale) is affixed a piece of lead stamped on one side with the name of the selector (inspector) and on the other the sort of hemp and when selected.

 

Ref

IDS

10

ПД = PD

T.KOЛПAKOB

(T.KOLPAKOV)

H30

SPB

AKRH

1799

30

post

 

    The external marks of good hemp are its being of an equal green colour and free from spills but its good quality is proved by the strength of the fibre which should be fine thin and long.

    The First Sort must therefore be quite clean and free from spills, the Out Shot hemp is less so and the Half Clean hemp contains a still greater portion of spills and is of mixed qualities and colours.

     As a perfect knowledge of the qualities of hemp and flax can only be acquired by experience and attention agents usually employ men constantly occupied in this business by which means they are sure of getting goods of the best quality and thereby giving satisfaction to their principals because although the hemp is selected by sworn selectors yet the quantity of business and the speed with which it must be executed often cause a great difference in the same sort .

  The charges are consequently somewhat more but these are trifling in comparison to the advantage.

  What is picked out in cleansing hemp is called Hemp Codilla and this is generally made up in small bundles of one pood which before shipping are bound together in one large bundle consisting of about thirty small ones.

   In shipping hemp and flax particular care must be taken to do it in fine and dry weather as wet hemp would soon heat up and consequently be totally spoiled.  For this reason every vessel taking in hemp or flax is furnished with mats to prevent its getting damp and these are generally procured by and for the account of the captain.  Hemp being light and bulky, when stowed,  is forced into the vessel by means of winches which renders the operation of loading hemp rather slow.

   It may be taken as a general rule that the prices of hemp are highest in the months of May, June, July and even in the early part of August the demand for hemp article being then greatest and the exportation to North America being principally effected at this season.

   Again the prices of hemp are lowest in the month of
September the reason of which is that the less opulent hemp merchants return at the end of this month to their own country in order to make new purchases for the ensuing year and therefore willingly sell the remainder of their stock some Rubbles below the market prices.  This causes a general decline although a particular demand for hemp happening at that time or some political events or even rumours may no doubt produce a contrary effect . Two large warehouses called Ambares were built in St Petersburg for the special purpose of housing hemp.   63 poods make an English Ton .. whereas 60 poods of hemp and 40 poods of codilla make a "last" in St Petersburg.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Trade with Scandinavia and the Baltic by Mike Patrick
 

Please note this article is primarily about the HEMP trade at Topsham near Exeter

and references in this article do NOT necessarily apply to the country as a whole.

   The book “Around Topsham in Old Photographs” produced by Topsham Museum Society in 1990, included photographs of inscribed stones found at Rivers-meet, Topsham. One of them, located on the north shore of the River Clyst immediately outside the high wall, which encloses Rivers-meet, commemorates trade with the Baltic. It reads “1852 to 1861 SEVERAL CARGOES OF HEMP &c. FROM THE BALTIC DISCHARGED HERE   F.D.”

         Inscribed stone found at Riversmeet.

      The initials F.D. refer to Francis Davy (1810-96), the youngest son of Robert Davy, shipbuilder of Countess Wear, who like his father, was also an iron and hemp merchant. Francis Davy built Rivers-meet House having enclosed the marshy ground on which it was built. This brief article examines the extent of the Baltic Trade with the Exe estuary. In the second half of the seventeenth century development of a trade in plantation products saw the sending of Barbados sugar to Gothenburg while in the early 1700s, two shipments of serge to Drammen and mixed cloths to Gothenburg represented attempts to provide return cargoes for vessels bringing naval supplies from the Baltic. The development of a regular trade was discouraged by high Scandinavian duties on English cloth. Baltic ports are 1,000 miles or more from Exeter, and contacts only developed because of their virtual monopoly of European supplies of naval stores and coniferous timber. Trade was almost entirely one way. A few unsuccessful attempts were made to establish woollen markets in Danzig, Drammen, Gothenburg, Archangel and St. Petersburg, but normally ships from Scandinavia and the Baltic cleared from the Exe in ballast. The Baltic timber trade was well established by 1660, four vessels entering from Norway in 1663. Trade continued on this scale in the eighteenth century, with Drammen as the principal market. There were occasional imports of linen from Archangel and hemp from St Petersburg. An important element of the import trade was represented by raw materials for the building and fitting out of vessels. In the seventeenth century pitch and tar were received from Scandinavia and hemp and flax from the Low Countries. Direct contacts with Russia for the import of hemp and flax were established by 1715 and at the end of the century Topsham was receiving two shipments annually from St Petersburg. Russian hemp and tallow were re-exported to south coast ports including Portsmouth and Falmouth. The hemp import reached 5964 hundredweights in 1827 but later fell off with the decline in shipbuilding. After 1815 Topsham began to import pitch and tar from Archangel, Riga, Stockholm and Gothenburg. During the eighteenth century bars of iron were occasionally received from Gothenburg, St Petersburg and other Baltic ports. Tallow came from St Petersburg and Archangel.

     Another inscribed stone from the north shore of the River Clyst, situated within the high wall, which encloses Riversmeet. The stone specifically commemorates trade with Russia. It reads “SEVERAL CARGOES OF HEMP & C FROM ST. PETERSBURG DISCHARGED HERE 1850 TO 1861”. At the time of the Napoleonic wars many overseas contacts were lost and the entrepot trade was reduced in scale. Important items at Topsham were naval stores from the Baltic (hemp, flax, pitch, tar and tallow) and the goods were distributed only to neighbouring ports. After 1815 the Baltic entrepot trade became for a time more prosperous. Messrs. Milford of Exeter could be described in 1823 as “the most considerable Importers of Russian produce between Portsmouth and Lands End”. Bonding privileges were extended to Topsham in 1842 and it became no longer necessary to send goods up to the bonded warehouses in Exeter. As the eighteenth century progressed the timber trade changed in character and Norway emerged as the chief source of supply. 1792 witnessed the receipt in Topsham of eight timber shipments from Christiana, Frederickstad, Langesund and Porsgrunn, the ship Carhas making three voyages from Langesund in the year. The William brought two timber cargoes from Memel, and there were two shipments of hemp, linen, tallow and timber from St Petersburg, and one of timber from Narva.      The Baltic trade was maintained in the early years of the Napoleonic Wars, but with the development of the Continental System a decline occurred, the number of shipments falling from 14 in 1806 to one in 1808 and none in 1809. Trade was on a small scale until the end of the war but, by 1815, contacts with Norway were again established, when ten timber shipments were received.

   Between 1817 and 1827 nine to sixteen vessels entered annually at Topsham. In the 1820s trade with the Baltic was dominated by Memel, Gothenburg and St Petersburg. In 1815 contacts were also established with Riga, which sent one or two annual shipments of flax, hemp, pitch, tar and timber.

   Similar cargoes came from Archangel. After 1850 a considerable expansion in the timber trade took place.    Twenty-five vessels entered from Norway and Sweden in 1872, and these two countries contributed a major share of the large timber import of this period. 1876 saw the import of 12,716 loads#, mainly of fir timber, more than four times as much as in 1840. The trade was now controlled by Russia, Norway and Sweden. Close commercial connections were maintained with the Baltic until the end of the nineteenth century. The overseas timber trade used vessels of over 100 tons. Even in the seventeenth century vessels of over 150 tons were employed in the Norwegian trade and by the nineteenth century it became common to see vessels of 300-700 tons. The majority of timber cargoes were discharged in the Bight and carried up to Topsham or the canal entrance by raft or lighter. In 1838, 19 out of 20 visiting timber vessels discharged in the lower waters of the estuary. The estuary’s timber trade was now controlled by Topsham which handled 1599 loads out of the 1995 loads received in 1849.      By 1849, while Exeter dominated the overseas trade of the estuary, Topsham continued to handle the major part of the timber and hemp imports from the Baltic, which was mainly for its own shipyards. Some small import of foodstuffs from the Baltic took place in the 1870s, when wheat and Barley arrived from Russia. It is unlikely that the inscribed stones pictured above were positioned to commemorate goods landed at Rivers-meet and it is interesting to speculate on their original or intended location.

 

        [The material in this brief summary is largely drawn from the excellent book “The Ports of the Exe Estuary” by E.A.G. Clark, published by The University of Exeter (1960 and reprinted 1968).]

Additionally, Mike did some research on the 18th-19th century woollen cloth trade in the vicinity and while looking at the letters of a Lisbon merchant who imported Devon cloth, Mike noted that he was also involved in the importation of hemp from St. Petersburg to Lisbon in October 1835, using the ship WOLGA, under the command of Captain Tuleff. Morning Advertiser - Thursday 26 November 1835 - ARRIVALS: LISBON - Oct. 10, Wolga, Tuleff, from St Petersburg].

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Napoleon tries to cut off Russian hemp for Britain

 

 

In July 1807 Napoleon I of France and Csar Alexander I of Russia signed the

Treaties of Tilsit in the town of Tilsit. This treaty ended war between Imperial

Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires

that rendered the rest of continental Europe almost powerless.

 The two countries secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes.     

 The treaty created an alliance between Russia, France, Prussia, Denmark,

and others forcing them to break all ties, trade and commerce, with

England in an attempt to isolate England from Russia.

   Russia was one of the international main exporters, they dominated the

international hemp trade and hemp was England’s most vital commodity with

Russia supplying 90 percent. England was the top international importer of hemp.

The flourishing Russian economy and stable hemp trade between England and

 Russia was a very powerful imminent threat to Napoleons France.

    Through the Treaties of Tilsit Napoleon tried to gain control of the international

hemp trade and market. Although the treaty was signed by both parties,

 the Czar could not enforce the treaty and Russia didn't keep his promise because

most of their economy depended on the trade with Britain so the clandestine

trade with Britain continued to flourish.. they say money talks .. promises walk ..

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